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Unit 3B Human Form & Function Body systems The skeleton.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 3B Human Form & Function Body systems The skeleton."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 3B Human Form & Function Body systems The skeleton

2 Study Guide Read: Our Human Species (3 rd edtn) Chapter 4, sections 1-8, Complete: Human Biological Science Workbook Topic 13 – The Skeleton

3 Skeletal system The skeletal system consists of the bones, joints, ligaments and cartilages in the body. The functions of the skeletal system are to: –protect and support the internal organs, – provide anchor points for the muscles to allow movement, –produce blood cells.

4 The microscopic structure of bone Prof Alan Boyde, Wellcome Images

5 Bone Bone is classified as a connective tissue. It has a brittle, calcified matrix with many collagen fibres, giving bones a degree of pliability. Several types of cells occur in bone. These include osteoblasts, which are young, bone- forming cells, and osteocytes, which are mature cells contained in cavities (lacunae). Bone has a rich blood supply.

6 There are two types of bone – compact bone, which is very hard and dense, and spongy bone, which is porous, consisting of a network of small bony plates. Medical Art Services, Munich, Wellcome Images Compact bone Spongy bone

7 Compact bone Compact bone consists of Haversian systems. A Haversian system comprises circular layers of bone (lamellae) surrounding a central Haversian canal, which carries blood and lymph vessels.

8 Haversian systems M I Walker, Wellcome Images Haversian system Haversian canal Concentric lamellae

9 Haversian systems Central canal Lacunae housing mature osteocytes Wellcome Photo Library Concentric lamellae

10 The skeleton

11 Bone classification Bones can be classified according to their shape and their structure. Classification by shape Long bone – e.g. Thigh bone (femur) Short bone – e.g. wrist bones (carpals) Flat bone – e.g. shoulder blade (scapula) Irregular bone – e.g. vertebrae Sesamoid bones develop in tendons – e.g. kneecap (patella)

12 Medical Art Services, Munich, Wellcome Images Long bone Short bones Irregular bone Flat bones

13 Bones classified by structure Epiphysis Diaphysis Spongy or cancellous bone Compact or dense bone M I Walker, Wellcome Images D Gregory & D Marsgall, Wellcome Images The Miles Kelly Art library, Wellcome Images

14 Structure of a long bone Epiphysis Diaphysis Spongy or cancellous bone Compact or dense bone Articulating cartilage Growth cartilage Marrow cavity Periosteum The Miles Kelly Art library, Wellcome Images

15 Mariana Ruiz Villarreal Skull Cervical vertebrae Clavicle Scapula Ribcage Lumbar vertebrae Pelvis Humerus Ulna Radius Carpals & metacarpals Phalanges Femur Fibula Tibia Carpals & metacarpals Phalanges Sternum The human skeleton

16 Axial & appendicular skeleton Axial skeleton –Skull –Vertebral column (backbone) –Ribcage Appendicular skeleton –Pectoral girdle –Upper limbs –Pelvic girdle –Lower limbs

17 Axial & appendicular skeleton Axial skeleton Appendicular skeleton Mariana Ruiz Villarreal

18 Skull Mariana Ruiz Villarreal

19 Vertebral column Wellcome Photo Library 7 cervical vertebrae 12 thoracic vertebrae 5 lumbar vertebrae 5 fused sacral vertebrae Coccyx 3-5 vertebrae Cervical vertebrae Thoracic vertebrae Lumbar vertebrae

20 Structure of a vertebra Medical Art Services, Munich, Wellcome Images Body Transverse process Spinous process Articulating surface Vertebral foramen Intervertebral disc

21 Ribcage Gray’s Anatomy Anterior Posterior Sternum Costal cartilage

22 Pelvic girdle Male Female Ilium Pubis Ischium < 90° >100° Wellcome Photo Library

23 Pectoral girdle Clavicle Scapula Wellcome Photo Library

24 The upper and lower limbs Mariana Ruiz Villarreal Tarsus Metatarsus Phalanges

25 The hand Mariana Ruiz Villarreal

26 Medical Art Services, Munich, Wellcome Images Joints

27 Joint classification Joints can be classified by their structure and the amount of movement they allow. StructureJoint cavityMovement FibrousNone CartilaginousNoneNone or slight SynovialPresentFreely movable

28 Types of joints Wellcome Photo Library Immovable fibrous joint Slightly movable cartilaginous joint Movable synovial joint

29 The structure of a synovial joint Wellcome Photo Library Articulating cartilage Joint cavity Bursa Synovial membrane Fibrous capsule

30 Can you name these ligaments of the knee joint?

31 Synovial joints Synovial joints have a joint cavity and are classified according to the type of movement they allow.

32 FlexionExtension Rotation Adduction Abduction Hinge joint Ball & socket joint Pivot joint

33 Hinge joint Mariana Ruiz Villarreal

34 Ball and socket joint Mariana Ruiz Villarreal

35 Pivot joint Mariana Ruiz Villarreal

36 Saddle joint Mariana Ruiz Villarreal


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