2 Self-Disclosure Revealing confidential or secret informationPrivacy Withholding personal information to enhance autonomy or minimize vulnerability
The Disclosure–Privacy Dialectic The tension between sharing personal information and keeping personal information confidential – also called the openness and closedness dialectic 3
Communication Privacy Management (CPM) Theory CPM: provides a framework for understanding the decision-making process people use to manage disclosure and privacy Rules designed to maximize benefits of disclosure while minimizing risks 4
Petronio’s 5 Disclosure Principles 1.Private information is “owned” and people believe they have the right to control it. 2.Control is accomplished through privacy rules. 3.When private information is disclosed, the recipient becomes co-owner of the information. 4.Third-party access concerns Permeability: how much can be told Linkage: who else can know Ownership: who makes third-party disclosure 5.We are likely to encounter boundary turbulence, privacy violations, intrusions, and dilemmas. 5
Factors in CPM Theory Rules Culture Individualistic cultures value privacy more than collectivist cultures. Americans tend to disclose more than most cultures. Gender Men tend to disclose less: “strong and silent” type. Women tend to disclose more: “nurturing and sensitive” type. 6
Factors in CPM Theory Rules Motivation Disclose more to people we know or want to know May disclose secrets of those we don’t like Risk–benefit analysis Weigh the advantages/disadvantages of disclosing Context Disclose to a “professional” May “tell” when another is in danger 7
Social Penetration Theory Over time relationships move from lesser to greater intimacy based on the increasing number of topics that partners discuss and the degree of personal information disclosed on those topics (Altman and Dolman). 8
Effects of Disclosure and Privacy on Relationships Disclosing secrets may damage/end relationship. Partners don’t disclose at the same time/rate. Disclosing to a third party may damage trust. Some may choose to protect others by not disclosing information. 9
Effects of Social Media on Privacy Social media and cell phone use in public blur the distinction between public and private communication. Social media and the Internet are changing what people view as private and public. 10
Warranting Theory We use Facebook pages to create perceptions of others: Tags Posts Blog comments Warranting theory: We find behaviors of others more credible when it cannot be easily manipulated by the person whom it describes. 11
Digitally Managing Your Personal Information Do not carry on private phone conversations in public places. Do not post information online that you would not want your employers, enemies, or identity thieves to see. Be aware that others can digitally alter your digital image. Use social media privacy settings. 12
Appropriate Self-Disclosure Self-disclose the kind of information you want others to disclose to you. Self-disclose more intimate information only when you believe the disclosure represents an acceptable risk. Continue intimate self- disclosure only if it is reciprocated. 13 Move self-disclosure to deeper levels gradually. Reserve intimate or very personal self- disclosure for ongoing relationships.
14 Reciprocal self-disclosure has the greatest positive effects.
15 Skills for Self-Disclosure and Privacy Management Owning feelings and opinions Crediting yourself for feelings and opinions Making “I” statements Describing behavior and feelings Recounting specific behaviors without drawing conclusions Owning and explaining emotions
16 Describing Feelings Describing Feelings Explaining emotions one feels in a precise and unemotional manner Displaying Feelings Displaying Feelings Showing emotions through facial reactions, body language, or paralanguage
17 Protecting Privacy Making a conscious decision to withhold information or feelings from others Change the subject. Mask feelings. Tell a “white lie.” Establish boundaries.
18 Giving Personal Feedback Describing Behavior Recounting specific behaviors of another without commenting on appropriateness Constructive Criticism Describes the negative behaviors of another and their effects
Describing Behavior Identify the overall impression you are experiencing. Recall the specific behaviors that led to the impression. Form a message to report only what you have seen or heard without drawing a conclusion about the behaviors. 19
20 Giving Constructive Criticism Begin by describing the behavior. Preface a negative statement with a positive one. Be as specific as possible. Suggest how the person can change the behavior.
21 Praising Describing specific positive behaviors or accomplishments of another and the effects of the behavior
22 Asking for Feedback Think of feedback as in your best interest. Be prepared for an honest response. Specify the kind of feedback you are seeking. Avoid loaded questions. Try to avoid negative verbal and nonverbal reactions to feedback. Paraphrase what you hear. Show gratitude for the feedback.