Presentation on theme: "Communication and Identity"— Presentation transcript:
1 Communication and Identity CHAPTER TOPICSCommunication and the SelfPresenting the Self: Communication as Identity ManagementSelf-Disclosure in RelationshipsAlternatives to Self Disclosure
2 Communication and the Self Self-Concept and Self-EsteemSelf-conceptThe relatively stable set of perceptions you hold of yourselfSelf-esteemEvaluations of self-worth
3 Communication and the Self Self-Concept and Self-EsteemPeople with high self-esteemTend to think well of othersExpect to be accepted by othersHigh self-esteem doesn’t guarantee interpersonal successCan be starting point for positive behaviors and interactions
4 Communication and the Self Self-Concept and Self-EsteemPeople with low self-esteemLikely to disapprove of othersExpect to be rejected by othersEvaluate their own performance less favorablyPerform poorly when being watchedFeel threatened by people they view as superiorHave difficulty defending themselves against others’ negative comments
5 Communication and the Self Self-Concept and Self-EsteemSelf-esteem and communication behaviorFigure 2.1
6 Communication and the Self Biological and Social Roots to the SelfBiology and the selfPersonality is part of our genetic makeupBiology influenced traitsExtroversionShynessAssertivenessVerbal AggressionWillingness to communicatePersonality is flexible, dynamic, shaped by experience
7 Communication and the Self Socialization and the Self-ConceptMessages we receive from people in our lives play central role in shaping how we regard ourselvesReflected AppraisalEach of us develops a self-concept that reflects the way we believe others see us
8 Communication and the Self Socialization and the Self-ConceptThese principles continue in later life especially when messages come from significant othersImpact remains strong during adolescenceInclusion in or exclusion from peer groups crucial factor
9 Communication and the Self Socialization and the Self-ConceptSocial ComparisonEvaluating ourselves in terms of how we compare with othersTwo Types of ComparisonSuperior or InferiorSame or different from othersThese comparisons depend on the reference groups we measure ourselves againstSignificance depends on opinions of othersWhat are some ways we compare ourselves to others?What are ways women, specifically compare themselves; men?What is it about these comparisons that make them unrealistic?
10 Communication and the Self Characteristics of the Self-ConceptDistorted self-evaluations can occurThese distortions can be based on:Obsolete informationDistorted feedbackEmphasis on perfectionSocial expectations‘foggy mirror’: online daters have this. See themselves more positively than others doObsolete: lingering failures from past or past success that doesn’t guarantee future successDistorted: overly critical parents, cruel friends, uncaring teachers; child’s inflated egoPerfectionism: I have no faults; everyone else is perfectSocial expect: we downplay our strengths to the determint of our accomplishments; we sometimes think those that appreciate their strenghts are braggarts
11 Communication and the Self The Self-Concept Resists ChangeCognitive conservatismTendency to seek and attend to information that conforms to existing self-conceptTendency holds when new self-perception would be more favorableCan accept new data and change perception or keep original perception and refute new informationMost communicators reluctant to downgrade favorable impression of themselves (can become defensive-see chap. 10)
12 Communication and the Self The Self-Concept Resists ChangeSuggestions for embracing a more positive self-imageHave a realistic perception of yourselfHave realistic expectationsHave the will to changeHave the skill to change
13 Communication and the Self Culture, Gender, and IdentityCultureSelf shaped by culture in which we have been rearedIndividualistic cultureStrong I orientationCollectivistic cultureMaintaining harmonyCo-cultural identityWhat is culture to you?What type of culture is American culture?
14 Communication and the Self Culture, Gender, and IdentitySex and genderBeing male or female shapes way others communicate with us and thus our sense of selfSelf-esteem influenced by genderSense of self shaped strongly by people with whom we interact and contexts in which we communicateWhat is the difference in a man and woman who both stand up for their beliefs?The crowd you are with has impact on self-esteem.
15 Communication and the Self The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy and CommunicationSelf-fulfilling prophecyA person’s expectations and subsequent behavior make an event more likely to occurFour stages of the self-fulfilling prophecy:Holding an expectation (for yourself or others)Behaving in accordance with that expectationThe expectation comes to passReinforcing the original expectationSee self-esteem chart
16 Communication and the Self The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy and CommunicationTypes of self-fulfilling propheciesSelf-imposed propheciesProphecies imposed by othersShown to be powerful force for shaping self-concept and thus behaviorObserver must do more than believe, must communicate beliefSelf-imposed: our own expectations influence our behaviorImportant: must do more than just believe to create self-fulfilling prophecy. This belief must also be communicated for the prediction to have impact.EX: parents have faith in their children, but don’t comm. This these expectations affect kids lessboss has concerns but keeps concerns to herself, employee won’t be influencedPpWhat does this say about communication? What do you think about this?
17 Communication as Identity Management Public and Private SelvesIdentity managementCommunication strategies people use to influence how others view themPerceived selfA reflection of the self conceptPresenting selfThe way we want others to view usFaceHow many roles do you play in your life?List these roles on the same “Who Am I’ page. These roles are ways to managed how we are seenPerceived self: who you believe yourself to be in moments of honest reflection; private
18 Communication as Identity Management Characteristics of Identity ManagementWe strive to construct multiple identitiesIdentity management is collaborativeIdentity management can be deliberate or unconsciousCollaborative: ID management can come about in relation with our communication with others
19 Communication as Identity Management Manage Identities?Start and manage relationshipsGain compliance of othersSave the face of othersExplore new selvesStart: make good impression; see us positivelyGain compliance: get someone to do what we wantSave face:
20 Communication as Identity Management Managing Identities in Person and OnlineFace-to-face identity managementManaged in three waysMannerWords and nonverbal actionsSettingPhysical items we use to influence othersAppearancePersonal items we use to shape image
21 Communication as Identity Management Managing Identities in Person and OnlineOnline impression managementWhat is missing in online communication can be an advantageGives us more control over managing impressionsAllows strangers to change age, etc.Viewing online presence as neutral third party can be valuable exerciseReputation management
22 Communication as Identity Management Identity Management and HonestyManaging impressions doesn’t make you a liarEach of us has a repertoire of facesBeing a competent communicator is choosing best face for the situationHelping Cade ride his bike. I kept a certain ‘façade’ but wanted him to try as much as possible.
23 Self-Disclosure in Relationships Process of deliberately revealing information about oneselfMust be deliberateMust be significantNot known by others
24 Self-Disclosure in Relationships Models of Self-DisclosureAltman and Taylor – social penetration (p 58ff)Breadth of information being volunteeredDepth of information volunteeredDepending on breadth and depth, relationship can be casual or intimateMeasuring depthSome revelations more significant
25 Self-Disclosure in Relationships Models of Self-DisclosureLuft and Ingham – Johari WindowPart IOpen areaPart II-KnownBlind areaPart IIIHidden areaPart IVUnknown areaDraw window up on board (p. 60)Show mine if time allows
26 Self-Disclosure in Relationships Benefits and Risks of Self-DisclosurePrivacy managementChoices people make to reveal or conceal information about themselves
27 Self-Disclosure in Relationships Benefits and Risks of Self-DisclosureBenefits of self-disclosureCatharsis-reliefReciprocity-I share, you shareSelf-clarification-clarify beliefs/opinions, etcSelf-validation-hope for agreementSocial influence-
28 Self-Disclosure in Relationships Benefits and Risks of Self-DisclosureRisks of self-disclosureRejectionNegative impressionDecrease in relational satisfactionLoss of influenceHurting the other personI take this chance constantly as a therapist. Base it on experience, number of session, rel. with client
29 Self-Disclosure in Relationships Guidelines for Self-DisclosureIs the other person important to you?Are the amount and type of disclosure appropriate?Is the risk of disclosing reasonable?Will the effect be constructive?Is the self-disclosure reciprocated?Do you have a moral obligation to disclose?
30 Alternatives to Self-Disclosure SilenceLyingBenevolent lieEquivocatingHinting
31 Alternatives to Self-Disclosure The Ethics of EvasionIs an indirect message in the interests of the receiver?Is this sort of evasion the only or best way to behave?
32 Chapter Review Communication and the Self Presenting the Self: Communication as Identity ManagementSelf-Disclosure in RelationshipsAlternatives to Self Disclosure