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1 Interpersonal Relationships.  Scientists believe that ALL relationships – both impersonal and personal – are based on the social exchange theory. ◦

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Presentation on theme: "1 Interpersonal Relationships.  Scientists believe that ALL relationships – both impersonal and personal – are based on the social exchange theory. ◦"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Interpersonal Relationships

2  Scientists believe that ALL relationships – both impersonal and personal – are based on the social exchange theory. ◦ We seek out people who can give us rewards (tangible or intangible) that are greater than or equal to the costs we encounter in dealing with them Rewards – Cost = Outcome 2

3  Acquaintances – goal is to reduce uncertainty and maintain face  Friends – we voluntarily become more personal  Close friends / Intimates – few people we share trust with high degree of commitment, disclosure, and interdependence 3

4  Interpersonal communication occurs when people treat one another as unique individuals, regardless of the context in which the interaction occurs or the number of people involved. 4

5  Metacommunication is communication about communication ◦ Essential ingredient in successful relationships ◦ Tool for handling problems ◦ Reinforces good aspects of a relationship 5

6  Physical  Intellectual sharing  Emotional  Shared activities 6

7  Women are more likely to share thoughts and feelings  75% of men surveyed said most meaningful experiences w/ friends came from activities other than talking 7

8  Beginning relationships  Developing relationships  Maintaining relationships  Deteriorating and Dissolving relationships 8

9 9 Mark Knapp’s Stages of the Relationship

10  Initiating – brief interactions to show interest  Experimenting – small talk  Intensifying – expression of feelings (WE)  Integrating – take identity as one social unit  Bonding – make symbolic public gestures 10

11  Differentiating – need to gain privacy  Circumscribing – withdrawal, shrinking of interest  Stagnating – no growth occurs  Avoiding – physical distance occurs  Terminating – relationship ends 11

12  Autonomy vs. Connection  Openness vs. Closedness (privacy)  Novelty vs. Predictability 12

13 Self-disclosure is the process of deliberately revealing information about oneself that is significant and that would not normally be known by others. Disclosure is revealing confidential or secret information. Disclosure is a larger concept because it includes confidential information about others as well as yourself (Petronio, 2002 & pg 161) 13

14 14

15 15 (Pg 164)

16  Intimacy – Because of Dialectical tensions, people more back and forth between greater disclosure and privacy. Disclosure can increase and decrease intimacy.  Reciprocity – how long do you wait before you reciprocate disclosure  Trust – How does your partner treat information you shared 16

17  Self-disclose information you want others to disclose to you  Continue self-disclosure when reciprocated  Gradually move to deeper levels of self- disclosure  Observe the risk involved in self-disclosing 17

18  Formal Cultures Engage in Less Self- Disclosure  Germany More Formal than America  Misperceptions in Early Stages of Cross-Cultural Relationships  Across Cultures - More Intimacy, More Self-Disclosure 18

19  In General, Men Tend to Disclose Less Than Women, but This Varies by Individual and Cultural Tradition  Men in our society are more likely to view conversation as report-talk  Women in our society are more likely to view conversation as rapport-talk Tannen,


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