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Anne Suryani Dani Vardiansyah Novita Damayanti Universitas Multimedia Nusantara 2010 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Anne Suryani Dani Vardiansyah Novita Damayanti Universitas Multimedia Nusantara 2010 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Anne Suryani Dani Vardiansyah Novita Damayanti Universitas Multimedia Nusantara 2010 1

2  Irwin Altman & Dalmas Taylor  Social penetration: the process of developing deeper intimacy with another person through mutual self-disclosure and other forms of vulnerability 2

3 Personality structure: a multilayered onion  Personality structure: onion-like layers of belief and feelings about self, others, and the world; deeper layers are more vulnerable, protected, and central to self- image 3

4 Closeness through self-disclosure  Self-disclosure: the voluntary sharing of personal history, preferences, attitudes, feelings, values, secrets, etc., with another person; transparency. 4

5 The depth and breath of self-disclosure  Depth of penetration: the degree of intimacy  Breath of penetration: the range of areas in an individual’s life over which disclosure takes place  Process: 1. Peripheral items are exchanged more frequently and sooner than private information 2. Self-disclosure is reciprocal, especially in the early stages of relationship development 3. Penetration is rapid at the start but slows down quickly as the tightly wrapped inner layers are reached 4. Depenetration is a gradual process of layer-by- layer withdrawal 5

6 Regulating closeness on the basis of rewards and costs  Social exchange theory (John Thibaut; Harold Kelley): relational outcome, relational satisfaction, relational stability.  Social exchange: relationship behavior and status regulated by both parties' evaluations of perceived rewards and costs of interaction with each other  Outcome: rewards minus costs  Minimax principle of human behavior: people seek to maximize their benefits and minimize their costs 6

7 Comparison Level (CL) – Gauging relational satisfaction  Comparison level (CL): the threshold above which an interpersonal outcome seems attractive; a standard for relational satisfaction  Satisfaction: how happy or sad an interpersonal outcome makes a participant feel 7

8 Comparison Level of Alternatives (CL alt ) – Gauging relational stability  Comparison level of alternatives (CL alt ): the best outcome available in other relationships; a standard for relationship stability 8

9 Ethical reflection: Epicurus’ ethical egoism  Passive pleasures of friendship & good digestion, the absence of pain  Ethical egoism: the belief that individuals should live their lives so as to maximize their own pleasure and minimize their own pain 9

10 A simple notion becomes more complex in practice 1. Interpersonal closeness proceeds in a gradual and orderly fashion from superficial to intimate levels of exchange, motivated by current and projected future outcomes. Lasting intimacy requires continual and mutual vulnerability through breadth and depth of self-disclosure (Griffin, 2009, p. 120) 10

11 2. Dialectical model (Altman): the assumption that people want both privacy and intimacy in their social relationships; they experience a tension between disclosure and withdrawal 3. Communication privacy management theory (Sandra Petronio): all people have personal boundary rules to guide whether or not they will disclose personal information to someone else 11

12 Communication privacy management theory 1. Privacy rules foundations Privacy rules: Personal guides for privacy/disclosure decisions shaped by: ○ Culture ○ Gender ○ Motive ○ Context ○ Risk-benefit ratio 2. Boundary coordination: the process through which the revealer and recipient agree on the same privacy rules for a given disclosure 3. Boundary turbulence: The conflict that results from parties’ failure to coordinate privacy rules and boundary management 12

13 Summary  Social penetration  Personality structure  Self-disclosure  Reference: Griffin, 2009. pp.113-124 13

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