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FUNDAMENTALS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING Instructor: Shelby Reigstad Student: Haddish Abadi 06 November 2012 Self-Disclosure.

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Presentation on theme: "FUNDAMENTALS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING Instructor: Shelby Reigstad Student: Haddish Abadi 06 November 2012 Self-Disclosure."— Presentation transcript:


2 FUNDAMENTALS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING Instructor: Shelby Reigstad Student: Haddish Abadi 06 November 2012 Self-Disclosure

3 Introduction Thesis Statement Self-disclosure is a communication process that moves from the relatively shallow, non-intimate levels, to deeper and more personal levels as relationships gradually develop (Altman & Taylor 1973, cited in Floyd, 2009). Human conversation (30-40% of everyday speech) - relays information to others about one’s private experiences or personal relationships (Tamir & Jason, 2012 ).

4 Definition: Self-disclosure “The act of giving others information about oneself that one believes they do not already have” (Floyd, 2009). “Act of revealing personal information to others. - Plays a central role in the formation and maintenance of close relationships” (Bareket & Shahar, 2011). Personal information communicated verbally, nonverbally or written to another person (Omarzu, 2010). Voluntary sharing a part of yourself, that is, your inner being, thoughts, & emotions with someone else.

5 1. Social Penetration Theory (SPT)  Developed by Irwin Altman & Dalmas Taylor.  Predicts that as relationships develop, communication increases in breadth and depth,” (Floyd, 2009).  “As relationships develop, communication moves from relatively shallow, non-intimate levels to deeper, more personal ones,” (Altman & Taylor, 1973).  Proposes that closeness occurs through a gradual process of self-disclosure (

6 The Johari Window  The Arena : Information known by self & others.  The blindspot: Information known-by- others but not known-by- self.  The Facade : Information known-by-self but not known-by-others.  The Unknown : Information not known- by-self and not known- by-others. Known by Self Unknown by Self Un known by Others Known by Others ARENA (open) BLINDSPOT FACADE (Hidden) UNKNOWN (Little, 2005)

7 2. Principles of Self-disclosure 2.1 Self-disclosure varies in breadth & depth: –Breadth: the number of topics or content areas referred to disclosure. –Depth: intensity of the discourse. ( Omarzu, 2000 ) Self-disclosure over time is like peeling away the layers of an onion.

8 The Onion Analogy (Floyd, 2009) Giving greater depth of your private information = trust Depth : Intimacy of the topics a person self- discloses to another. Breadth: Range of topics that a person self-discloses to another. Greater breadth: Disclosing wide range of topics

9 … Principles of Self-disclosure 2.2 Self-disclosure follows a process  Closeness develops over time As people get to know to each other, they reveal more and more information about themselves. (Floyd, 2009) 2.3 It is intentional and truthful.  It must meet two conditions: a)Deliberately share information about ourselves; b)Information is true.  Intentionally giving false information about ourselves is an act of deception.

10 … Principles of Self-disclosure 2.4 It is usually reciprocal.  Norm of reciprocity: When we disclose things to other people, we expect them to disclose things to us in return. 2.5 It can serve many purposes. -To share information -To ask for help -To build relationship, etc. (Omarzu, 2000)

11 … Principles of Self-disclosure 2.6 Self-disclosure is influenced by cultural and gender roles.  Women, on average, do self-disclose more than men. (Snell et. al, 1988)  Norms of the culture in which we grow up affect it. (Altman & Taylor, 1987).  Americans and Europeans usually self-disclose to their friends and family.  Most Asian cultures, value discretion and disclose only under limited circumstances.

12 3. Benefits & Risks 3.1 Benefits a) Enhancement of relationship and trust Self-disclosure maintains relationships and reinforces the trust we share with those individuals. b)Reciprocity When we disclose to other, they tend to disclose back to us. c)Emotional release, reduces stress  Self-disclosure to trusted friends leads to emotional release.  It can also reduce the stress of holding on to a secret. ( Omarzu, 2000 )

13 3. Benefits & Risks 3.2 Risks  Rejection by the listener Due to distorted impressions: as when an HIV positive friend self-discloses he may be rejected.  Reduction of one’s autonomy & personal integrity.  Violation of other people’s privacy When we disclose information (gossip) to third parties. (Omarzu, 2000 )

14 Conclusion Self-disclosure is a communication process that moves from less intimacy to a deeper one. It is an act of giving information about oneself that you believe other people do not already have. Self-disclosure maintains relationships and reinforces the trust we share with those individuals. It is a communication process that is intentional and truthful.

15 References Altman, I., & Taylor, D., (1973). Social Penetration: The development of Interpersonal Relationships, New York: NY: St. Martin’s Press. Altman, I., & Taylor, D. (1987). Communication in Interpersonal relationships. Social Penetration Theory. In M.E. Roloff & G.R. Miller (eds.), Interpersonal Processes: New directions in communication research, 257-277. Newbury Park, CA. Bareket-Bojmel, L. & G. Shahar. (2011). Emotional and Interpersonal Consequences of Self-Disclosure in a Lived, Online Interaction: Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 30, No. 7, 2011, pp. 732-759. Floyd, K. (2009). Interpersonal Communication: The Whole Story. New York: Mc Grow Hill. Little, L. (2005) Leadership Communication and the Johari Window: Administrator, Vol. 24, Issue 3, p4-4. Omarzu, J. (2000) A Disclosure Decision Model: Determining How and When Individuals Will Self-Disclosure: Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2000, Vol. 4, No. 2, 174-185. Snell, D. W., Miller, S. R., & Belk, S. S., (1988). Development of Emotional Self-disclosure Scale. Sex Roles, Vol. 18, Nos. 1/2. Tamir, D., & P.M. Jason. (2012). Disclosing Information about the Self is Intrinsically Rewarding. Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge;. PNAS, Vol. 109.


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