Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 24 THE CHALLENGE OF MODERNITY: EAST ASIA, 1750–1900 China."— Presentation transcript:
CHAPTER 24 THE CHALLENGE OF MODERNITY: EAST ASIA, 1750–1900 China
China and Japan in the Age of Imperialism Britain tried to set up a diplomatic embassy in Qing China. – Rejected by Emperor Qianlong – China had no need of Western things. Europeans had an imbalance of trade with China – China required payment for tea in silver. – English loosing silver to China In southwestern China, American tobacco was mixed with opium. Qing banned smoking opium in 1729 – Remained local problem until c. 1800.
British East India Company in Bengal had access to opium. Non-company men began to smuggle it into China, using offshore islands. Company becomes involved. – Opium becomes a fourth of Company revenue. Company lost monopoly on China trade in 1833 – More British began to trade in opium.
Opium merchants put pressure on Qing to legitimize trade. West already pushing for more trading ports in China besides Canton. China concerned about opium and Christian missionaries.
1839: Lin Zezu, a court official: – Demands dealers hand over opium – Pledge never to sell it again or face execution. Lin also sets up places for addicts to recover. When dealers refuse, he closes Canton to all trade. Dealers give in – Lin burns 20,000 chests of opium.
Dealers ask British government for compensation for lost stock. British demand more ports of trade and an embassy. British send a fleet – outnumbers and outguns dated Chinese ships. First Opium War (1839–1842).
First Opium War reveals that China’s military was underfunded and inadequate. Chinese opened negotiations to end First Opium War in 1842. – Treaty of Nanjing was the first of the “unequal treaties” that favored the West. – British claimed Hong Kong, – Chinese had to pay indemnity for the war, – Opened up ports at Shanghai, Ningbo, Fuzhou, and Xiamen. – Britain forced China to lower tariff on British goods. New ports were given extraterritoriality status. Other treaties followed with U.S. and France. New ports, goods, and swift changes made South China volatile.
Taiping Rebellion, 1851–1864 Hong Xiuquan (1814 – 1864) – failed at the Confucian exams – and studied Christian missionary texts. After a nervous breakdown became convinced he was Christ’s younger brother.
Promised to bring Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace to earth. His followers included: – Unemployed – Anti-Manchu dissidents – Hakka minority. Created a society of mixed – Protestant theology – Chinese tradition – Equality of genders – Outlawed footbinding and opium smoking. Men cut queues to show break with Manchu Qing
Second Opium War, 1856–1860 Britain tries to force Chine to open more ports. France joins Britain, – Wants China to allow more Catholic missionaries. Britain distracted in 1857 by “Great Rebellion” in in India, – Sent a large force with the French in 1860 – Drove emperor from Beijing. Treaty opened more ports, legalized opium, and set up embassies.
West decided to aid Qing suppress the Taiping Rebellion, because of all the treaties signed with the Qing.
From the 1870s, Qing and the West entered the “Cooperative Era.” Prince Gong (1833 – 1898) believed Westerners would assimilate Chinese culture. Self-strengthening policy: – “Chinese studies for the essence, Western studies for practical application.” – Set up foreign language and technical schools, modern arsenals, factories, navy yard, shipping, and sent Chinese students abroad.
Westernization opposed by conservative elites, such as Empress Dowager Cixi (1835 – 1908). Concerned that industrializing China would erode the society. Both self-strengtheners and opposition were weakened by lack of stability. In the 1880s China lost influence in Southeast Asia and Korea.
Boxer Rebellion Emperor Guangxu implemented Hundred Days of Reform. Opposed by Cixi, who had Guangxu placed under house arrest. Boxers, or Society of the Harmonious Fist: – Anti-Qing and anti-foreigners. – Opposed Christian missionaries, especially Germans active in Shandong. Started a rebellion in North China by assassinating German ambassador. Boxers hunted missionaries and Chinese Christians, helped by Chinese army.
Foreigners in Beijing besieged for 55 days Boxer rebellion put down by multinational response: – Western powers and Japanese. Qing completely routed by foreigners and forced to sign harsh treaty. Foreign troops stationed in Chinese cities.