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Imperialism and the Victorian Era

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1 Imperialism and the Victorian Era
World History B Seminar 5 Warm Up – Define the following: Imperialism Capitalism Nationalism Queen Victoria

2 Imperialism – A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, economically and socially Capitalism – Economic system in which the means of production are privately owned and operated for profit Nationalism – The belief that people should be loyal mainly to their nation – that is, to the people with whom they share a culture and a history, rather than to a king or ruler.

3 Western Imperialism of China


5 Qing Dynasty Loses Power
Western Nations Gain Power 1800, trade with European merchants profitable for Chinese Not important, Europeans just another set of foreigners who might pay tribute to emperor Little by little, though, Qing dynasty lost power, prestige, sovereignty over China Qing Dynasty Loses Power Chinese rulers believed all nations outside China barbaric Wanted little contact with outside world Europeans pushed for trading rights, but China restricted trade to single city, Guangzhou Chinese wanted silver Pleased when tea became popular with British and British silver flowed into China Tea Trade with Britain

6 Background Manchu Dynasty Conservative Resistant to change
Empress Dowager Resistant to change Feared W. influence Civil Service System Fostered corruption Economically behind west

7 Trade Imbalance Opium War British distressed by imbalance of trade
British discovered solution—opium; great demand for opium in China Opium addiction large problem; Chinese government banned import Foreign merchants continued to smuggle drug into China Opium War 1838, Chinese ordered destruction of British opium in Guangzhou British sent naval force to launch attack; captured Shanghai, 1842 Forced Chinese to sign peace treaty—first of unequal treaties Benefited European countries at expense of China

8 Opium War (1839-42) Factors leading to war
West saw $ in trade w/ China 1700’s trade benefits China 1800’s Euro trade increases transformed into $ economy replace Indian cotton w/opium Hurts China’s economy

9 Opium War (1839-42) 1836 China bans use of opium
,000 chests of opium destroyed Chinese ships clash w/ British

10 Treaty of Nanking 1842 Ends Opium War forces China to pay war costs
Britain obtains Hong Kong est. 5 treaty ports (14 by 1900) most favored nation low tariffs difficult for China to compete Treaty Port of Canton

11 Taiping Rebellion (1850-73) Series of rebellions against tradition
goal — remove European influence Rebels: combined Christianity w/ancient Chinese texts promoted end to vice & immorality gained control over large areas of China

12 Taiping Rebellion (1850-73) Ultimately fails Leaders:
Poorly educated Unable to redistribute land Unable to broaden support Secret societies Western assistance of Manchu (post-1860) 20-30 million perished

13 Reconstruction & Self-Strengthening
Rebuilding period post-rebellion destruction of irrigation mulberry trees (silk) Regional governors Used army & local gentry est. soup kitchens lower taxes rebuild agriculture Li Huang-chang

14 Reconstruction & Self-Strengthening
Regional governors (cont.) Modernization process: Industry  establish shipping communication refining textiles Military  bolsters training & equipment compete w/Russia & Japan

15 Reconstruction & Self-Strengthening
Result: Can’t compete w/ Western goods Lower tariffs Corruption Reform fails due to conservative resistance in govt.

16 Open Door Policy (1899) U.S. response to
European encroachment into China’s interior fears that China would be closed to trade Purpose—ensure free trade for all

17 Boxer Rebellion (1900) Religious society rebel against foreigners
fed up w/ missionaries lack of respect for Chinese culture destroying Chinese society defeated by foreign troops Result: Chinese leaders realize must reform

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