Presentation on theme: "Imperialism and the Victorian Era"— Presentation transcript:
1Imperialism and the Victorian Era World History B Seminar 5Warm Up – Define the following:ImperialismCapitalismNationalismQueen Victoria
2Imperialism – A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, economically and sociallyCapitalism – Economic system in which the means of production are privately owned and operated for profitNationalism – The belief that people should be loyal mainly to their nation – that is, to the people with whom they share a culture and a history, rather than to a king or ruler.
5Qing Dynasty Loses Power Western Nations Gain Power1800, trade with European merchants profitable for ChineseNot important, Europeans just another set of foreigners who might pay tribute to emperorLittle by little, though, Qing dynasty lost power, prestige, sovereignty over ChinaQing Dynasty Loses PowerChinese rulers believed all nations outside China barbaricWanted little contact with outside worldEuropeans pushed for trading rights, but China restricted trade to single city, GuangzhouChinese wanted silverPleased when tea became popular with British and British silver flowed into ChinaTea Trade with Britain
6Background Manchu Dynasty Conservative Resistant to change Empress DowagerResistant to changeFeared W. influenceCivil Service SystemFostered corruptionEconomically behind west
7Trade Imbalance Opium War British distressed by imbalance of trade British discovered solution—opium; great demand for opium in ChinaOpium addiction large problem; Chinese government banned importForeign merchants continued to smuggle drug into ChinaOpium War1838, Chinese ordered destruction of British opium in GuangzhouBritish sent naval force to launch attack; captured Shanghai, 1842Forced Chinese to sign peace treaty—first of unequal treatiesBenefited European countries at expense of China
8Opium War (1839-42) Factors leading to war West saw $ in trade w/ China1700’s trade benefits China1800’s Euro trade increasestransformed into $ economyreplace Indian cotton w/opiumHurts China’s economy
9Opium War (1839-42) 1836 China bans use of opium ,000 chests of opium destroyedChinese ships clash w/ British
10Treaty of Nanking 1842 Ends Opium War forces China to pay war costs Britain obtains Hong Kongest. 5 treaty ports (14 by 1900)most favored nationlow tariffsdifficult for China to competeTreaty Port of Canton
11Taiping Rebellion (1850-73) Series of rebellions against tradition goal — remove European influenceRebels:combined Christianity w/ancient Chinese textspromoted end to vice & immoralitygained control over large areas of China
12Taiping Rebellion (1850-73) Ultimately fails Leaders: Poorly educatedUnable to redistribute landUnable to broaden supportSecret societiesWestern assistance of Manchu (post-1860)20-30 million perished
13Reconstruction & Self-Strengthening Rebuilding period post-rebelliondestruction of irrigationmulberry trees (silk)Regional governorsUsed army & local gentryest. soup kitchenslower taxesrebuild agricultureLi Huang-chang
15Reconstruction & Self-Strengthening Result:Can’t compete w/ Western goodsLower tariffsCorruptionReform fails due to conservative resistance in govt.
16Open Door Policy (1899) U.S. response to European encroachment into China’s interiorfears that China would be closed to tradePurpose—ensure free trade for all
17Boxer Rebellion (1900) Religious society rebel against foreigners fed up w/ missionarieslack of respect for Chinese culturedestroying Chinese societydefeated by foreign troopsResult:Chinese leaders realize must reform