Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 22—EAST ASIA UNDER CHALLENGE 1900-1914. I. THE DECLINE OF THE QING DYNASTY A. Causes of Decline 1. External and Internal Pressure Pressure from."— Presentation transcript:
I. THE DECLINE OF THE QING DYNASTY A. Causes of Decline 1. External and Internal Pressure Pressure from modern west applied to Chinese society, internally the government was against reform. The Qing dynasty began to suffer from corruption. There was peasant unrest and incompetence which was made worse by population growth. Qing dynasty had restricted European merchants to a small trading outlet at Guangzhou (GWAHNG JOH) or Canton. Britain had a trade deficit with China, an unfavorable trade balance, imported more goods from China then it exported to China. Had to pay China with silver but eventually went to trading opium.
2. The Opium War Demand for opium jumped dramatically. China had to now pay for opium with silver. China government appealed to British government morals grounds to stop the traffic of opium. British refused to halt and this led to Opium War. No Match for Britain and a peace was made. The Treaty of Nanjng, or Unequal Treaty was signed. The treaty opened more ports for trade; limited taxed on British goods; Gave Hong Kong to Britain; Britain given “most favored nation status also given extraterritoriality. Europeans living in those ports were only subject to their own countries laws not China’s. This war marked the beginning of the establishment of western influence in China.
3. Tai Ping Rebellion Failure to deal with problems led to a peasant revolt known as the Tai ping Rebellion. They proclaimed a new dynasty called the Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace. It called for social reforms so many people liked it. It called for peasants to hold land in common. Continued for over 10 years but gradually began to fall apart. Chinese forces captured Nanjing and destroyed the rebel force.
4. Efforts at Reforms Late 1870’s Qing in decline. Eventually began to listen to appeals of reform minded officials. Called for a new policy they called “self- strengthening”. China should adopt western technology but keep its Confucian values and institutions.
B. The Advances of Imperialism Changes did not help the Qing stay in power. 1. Mounting Pressures Russia took advantage of Qing weaknesses to force China to give up territories. Russia took other land and eventually Britain signed an alliance with Japan. Even worse changes were taking place in the Chinese heartland where European states began to create SPHERES OF INFLUENCES, areas where the imperial powers had exclusive trading rights. 1894 China went to war with Japan and this hurt the Qing. Chinese soundly defeated in the Sino-Japanese War.
2. Internal Crisis This latest scramble for land took place at a time in internal crisis in China. Guang Xu launched a massive reform program based on changes in Japan. One Hundred Days of Reform, the emperor issued edicts calling for major political, administrative and educational reforms. He intended to modernize the government by following western models. Many conservatives opposed these reforms. They believed traditional Chinese rules needed to be reformed and not rejected in favor of western changes.
C. Responses to Imperialism Foreign pressure became greater on China and the US and Great Britain feared the other nation would overrun the country. 1899 John Hay of USA wrote a note to Britain and other countries to respect equal trading opportunities in China. This became known as the OPEN DOOR POLICY.
2. The Boxer Rebellion Boxer was the name given to members of a secret organization called the Society of Harmonious Fists. Were upset by the foreign takeover of China – “destroy the foreigners” was their slogan. Boxer bands roamed countryside and slaughtered foreign missionaries and Chinese Christians. An allied army attacked Beijing and resorted order. Government was forced to pay a huge indemnity, payment for damages. The imperial government was now weaker than ever.