Presentation on theme: "CHINA AND THE NEW IMPERIALISM BY: ROBIN PEARCE. By the 1830’s, British merchants were selling opium to the Chinese. Even though it was illegal in Britain."— Presentation transcript:
By the 1830’s, British merchants were selling opium to the Chinese. Even though it was illegal in Britain. By the 1800’s western countries started to spread their influence to East Asia. The Trade Issue China rulers established strict limits on foreign traders only letting them trade around Guangzhou in southern China. This allowed China to export more than they imported. Westerns had a Trade Deficit with China buying more from China then they sold to them. In 1796 Britain requested more trading rights only to be refused by the emperor Qianlong. The Opium War China bought large quantities of opium from British merchants. China paid large amounts of silver for the opium interrupting the Chinese economy. China made opium illegal and started executing drug dealers. The British refused to stop selling the opium. In 1839 Chinese warships attacked the British merchant ships. This triggered what was called the Opium war. The British easily defeated the Chinese with their outdated weaponry
Unequal Treaties Treaty of Nanjing ended the Opium War. – Britain forced China to sign it. It gave Britain Hong Kong and it forced the Chinese to pay a huge indemnity or payment for losses in the war. – Britain made the Chinese give the British citizens in China the right to live under their own laws and be tried in their courts. – China was forced to build 5 ports open to foreign trade – Lastly, whatever privileges China gave to another nation they HAD to give to Britain. The Taiping Rebellion Peasants revolted from 1850-1864 as a result of misery and poverty. It was led by Hong Xiuquan who was influenced by the teachings of Christian missionaries. Hong Xiuquan wanted: – Land Reforms – Community ownership of property – Equality of men and woman – Strict morality – However, he mostly wanted an END TO THE DESPISED QING DYNASTY
The Taiping Rebellion was eventually crushed by regional governors and generals. Effects of The Taiping Rebellion 20 to 30 million people died. The lower Yangzi basin was basically destroyed. The Qing dynasty was almost toppled and as an effect it had to share its power with regional commanders who had rebuilt their region and power base. Russia seized lands along the Amur River.
Reform Efforts In the 1860’s, reformers launched the “self-strengthening movement” which involved the setting up of: factories to make modern weapons, shipyards, railroads, and the mining and light industry. China went to war with Japan and was humiliated. This resulted in many western powers and Japan taking land from China. In 1898, a young emperor, Guang Xu took over and started the Hundred Days of Reform in his attempt to modernize China. Conservatives overthrew Guang Xu and Ci Xi retook control. Modern Chinese Factory
The Empire Crumbles The Boxer Uprising: – In 1899, a group of Chinese formed a secret society called the Harmonious Fists. Their goal was to expel the foreign powers. They attacked foreign communities across China. – The westerners and Japan organized a multinational force and crushed the rebellion. – As a result of the Boxer uprising China was forced to except terms by the westerners and Japan. China also was forced to modernize. This led to China exploding economically. – By the early 1900’s China introduced a constitutional monarchy.
Sun Yixian Sun was a passionate spokesman for a Chinese republic. In the early 1900’s he organized the revolutionary alliance. His goals were to free china from foreign control, the next was to establish a democracy in China, and the last was economic security for all Chinese. He was named president of the new Chinese Republic on January 1912 after the old empress Ci Xi died.