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China and the New Imperialism No more Balance in Trade.

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Presentation on theme: "China and the New Imperialism No more Balance in Trade."— Presentation transcript:

1 China and the New Imperialism No more Balance in Trade

2 Trade Between Britain and China Chinese regulate trade in the 1800s, trading silk, porcelain, and tea for gold and silver ◦Gave China a trade surplus and Europe a deficit China enters a period of decline Industrial Revolution creates a need for expanded markets Gave the west superior military power

3 The Opium War British merchants made huge profits trading Opium (India) for Chinese tea Many Chinese become addicted to Opium China sends lots of Silver out in payment Chinese outlaw the drug, execute the drug dealers, and told the British to stop selling ◦They refuse citing free trade British merchants and Chinese Warships clash ◦Chinese are easily defeated

4 Unequal Treaties Britain made the Chinese sign the Treaty of Nanjing British receive a huge indemnity – payment for losses in the war, island of Hong Kong, open 5 new ports and gave British citizens in China extraterritoriality – right to live under their own (British) law 2 nd war – France, Russia, and US sign treaties opening more ports to foreign trade and let Christian missionaries preach in China

5 The Taiping Rebellion Weakens China Peasants rebelled mainly due to tax evasion by the rich and to end the Qing dynasty Held out for 14 years Caused the deaths of between 20-30 million Europeans kept pressure on the Chinese and Russia seized lands in the north

6 Launching Reform Efforts Conflict over the traditional ways like Confucian scholars vs. the need to modernize and Christian missionaries Self-Strengthening Movement – Imported western technology to make modern weapons – limited progress because government doesn’t back program Sino-Japanese War – Japan gains the island of Taiwan

7 Spheres of Influence European powers carved out spheres of influence along the Chinese coast US did not take part We become fearful that European powers might shut out American merchants US calls for a policy to keep Chinese trade open to everyone on an equal basis – called the open door policy Nobody asked the Chinese!

8 Hundred Days of Reform Humiliated by defeat, Chinese reformers blame conservative officials for not modernizing Guang Xu launched 100 days reform – laws to modernize Conservatives rallied against the Emperor Emperor was imprisoned and the old guard was restored ◦Reformers fled for their lives

9 The Qing Dynasty Falls Anger grew over Christian missionaries, foreign troops, and protected extraterritoriality Exploded in Boxer Uprising ◦Secret society, the Righteous Harmonious Fists called boxers by westerners ◦Wanted to drive out foreign devils ◦Western powers and Japan crushed the boxers and rescued foreigners

10 Aftermath Had to make more concessions to foreigners Reformers admitted women to schools and stressed math and science Expanded economically A business class emerged and began to press for rights

11 3 Principles of the People Sun Yat-Sen called for a republic on three principles ◦Nationalism – Eliminate foreign domination ◦Democracy – Representative government ◦Livelihood – economic security for all Chinese 1911 Sun Yat-Sen was named president of the New Chinese Republic ◦Constantly at war with itself or foreign invaders

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