Presentation on theme: "Unit 3 – The Age of Absolute Monarchs (1500 – 1800) Lesson 2 - The Reign of Louis XIV."— Presentation transcript:
Unit 3 – The Age of Absolute Monarchs (1500 – 1800) Lesson 2 - The Reign of Louis XIV
Religious Wars and Power Struggles 1562-1598 – France had 8 religious wars Henry of Navarre, a Huguenot prince married the daughter of Catherine de Medicis (wife of King Henry II & mother of 3 French kings) 1572 St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre in Paris began as a protest vs. this wedding – 6 weeks of violence followed!
Henry of Navarre becomes Henry IV 1589 – Catherine and her last son died; King Henry IV is the 1 st Bourbon King of France. To satisfy Cath. he gave up Protestantism & became Cath. 1598 – Edict of Nantes – Huguenots could live in peace & build churches in some cities He restored the monarchy and brought peace to France 1610 – He was killed by a religious fanatic Francois Ravaillac.
King Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu Louis XIII (1624-1643) = weak king Cardinal Richelieu, head of Cath. church, was his minister To increase Bourbon power he removed walls from Huguenot cities & increased power of agents from middle class to curb power of nobles who had to take down fortified castles He wanted to make France the greatest power in Eur. vs. Hapsburgs as a result he involved France in the Thirty Years War (1618-1648)
Louis XIV (1643-1715) = The Sun King King at 4 yrs. old & real ruler was Cardinal Mazarin who followed Richelieu Greatest triumph- he ended the Thirty Years War in 1643 He was hated by nobles b/c he taxed & strengthened central gov’t (violent riots 1648-53 & even threatened little Louis). Riots failed b/c nobles didn’t trust each other, gov’t was ruthless, & peasants grew tired of violence
Louis XIV Weakens the Nobility 1661-Louis (22 yrs) takes control Excluded nobles from his councils Appointed gov’t agents called intendants who taxed, adm. law, & recruited soldiers for the king Reorganized army & assigned ranks; it went from 100 K to 400 K He kept intendants in touch with him on a regular basis “L’etat, c’est moi”
Exit Slip – Louis XIV Comes to Power 1.How did Henry of Navarre end the religious wars in France? a. Edict of Nantes b. Skepticism c. Asked the Pope 2.Who was Louis XIII’s minister who worked to strengthen the Bourbon monarchy? a. Cardinal Mazarin b. Cardinal Richelieu c. Colbert 3.How old was Louis XIV when he began his reign? a. 3 b. 4 c. 12 d. 31 4.Louis XIV increased the power of the ________ to improve communication through the empire. a. Nobles b. Cardinals c. intendants
France’s Economy Under Louis XIV Louis’ goal was to make Fr. an economic power Jean Baptiste Colbert – finance minister & mercantilist worked to make France become self-sufficient Expanded manufacturing by financing & giving tax breaks to Fr. companies Set tariffs high on imported goods Raised taxes & reduced corruption Emphasized importance of colonies & fur trade in New France He died in 1683 & Louis repealed the Edict of Nantes & exodus hurt growth
Stylin’ & Profilin’ w/ The Sun King 500 cooks, waiters, & servants! Each meal was a feast! (4 soups, 1 pheasant, 1 partridge in garlic, 2 slices of ham, 1 salad, pastries, fruit, & 2 boiled eggs for 1 meal! 8:30 AM – 100 of most privileged nobles at bed side to wait on him! Only 4 allowed to help dress him. If nobles didn’t show to flatter him Louis turned against them.
The Palace of Versailles 11 miles SW of Paris; & cost $ 2.5 B today’s $! 36 K workers & 6 K horses 27 yrs. to build it! 5,000 acres of gardens, lawns, & woods! 1,400 fountains and Hall of Mirrors (17 huge mirrors opposite 17 windows looking on gardens) considered most impressive room. 4 K candles & silver + crystal chandeliers in Hall were lit on special occasions. King’s BR furniture contained 1 ton of silver! Cost more than 50% of all taxes collected in Fr!
Wars Are Disastrous to France 30/54 yrs. France was at war! 1667 (after death of Mazarin) Louis invades Sp. Neth. & took several Dutch towns by 1678. 1689 – Wm. of Orange became King of England and joined League of Augsburg – an alliance to protect each other from France (Austria, Sweden, Spain, & smaller states = France’s strength.
The War of the Spanish Succession (1701 – 1714) 1700 – King Charles II (Spain) died childless & Louis XIV’s grandson, Phillip of Anjou (16 yrs) promised throne. This would join Fr. & Sp. 1701 – Eng., Austria, Dutch R., & several Ger. & Itl. States said no. Treaty of Utrecht (1714) said Phillip could be king if thrones not united. Eng. Got Gibraltar and slave trade + N. Scotia & Newfoundland Austrian Hapsburgs took Sp. Neth. France was ruined & Louis died 1715. Spanish Musketeers
The Legacy of Louis XIV People of France rejoiced when he died France did become a world power and a showcase for art, lit. & culture in Europe $21 Billion in debt! He advised his great gr. son (Louis XV) “Do not imitate me” Planted the seeds for the French Revolution (1789)