Presentation on theme: "Unit 2: Road to the Revolution"— Presentation transcript:
1Unit 2: Road to the Revolution McGuireHonors US History
2Quick-write in your notes: What is something you want to change? And why?IDEAS TO GET YOU STARTED:It could be anything… (pick one or two)About yourselfAbout your communityAbout our countryAbout how people relate to one anotherEtc, etc.
3Essential Questions Was the American War for Independence inevitable? Certain to happen; unavoidableWhat was the cause of the American Revolution?
4Causes of the Revolution We’ll be looking at the years from ~1700 to ~1775Be taking note of the different political, economic, and social happenings that would cause the colonists’ to move toward revolution
5Revolutions What is a revolution? What do you know? Discuss in a group of twoDoes it always involve war?Can one be on a small scale?Can one happen over a long period of time?Is a revolution only political? Only social? Only economic?Write your answers in your journalWhat do you know?What do you want to know?
6Please get with TWO other people who share a last initial with you. Students will understand the Navigation ActsPlease get with TWO other people who share a last initial with you.If no one does or you only have a group of two, stand in the middle-front of the room until I pair you up with a third partner
7Imagine this scenario...For the Food Bowl next year, ALL donations must go through Principal Gaines to be counted/approvedThink through this scenario with the partners I gave youWhat could possibly go wrong?What are the potential benefits?How would classes feel about this?Why would Principal Gaines want that specific power?
8Mercantilism Whatever is in bold...copy down A nation’s goal was to be as self sufficient as possible and have a positive balance of tradedidn’t want to have to rely on any other nation for anythingwanted all the gloryget more than you giveTo achieve this goal empires conquered lands, created colonies, produced staple agricultural productsnotebooks full of paper!!!Colonies existed only for the sake, welfare, enrichment of the mother country. Forbidden to trade with the enemy.This was the logic of the imperial era.
9Navigation ActsThe Navigation Acts required all of a colony's imports to be either bought from England or resold by English merchants in England, no matter what price could be obtained elsewhere.This meant that everything had to go through England. (Remember the point of a colony?)Think about all of those cash crops, lumber, furs, fish, etc.
10Take a guess: Why is this war called the French and Indian War? Students will understand the nature of and effects of the French and Indian War.Entry Task:Take a guess: Why is this war called the French and Indian War?*HW: read pp in your textbook by Monday*
11Historical Impact of the Nav. Acts Some historians argue that the Nav Acts negatively impacted colonists’ financially.Others, however, argue that the economic impact was pretty small but it caused significant political friction.Ex: Principal Gaines, Food Bowl donations
12What’s in a name? Seven Years War French and Indian War British historiansFrench and Indian WarAmerican historians (for the most part)Anglo-French rivalryCanadian historiansLa guerre de la Conquete (War of the Conquest)French Canadians
13French and Indian War = 7 Years War War between the British and the French VS.
17Clash of Empires: English, French, & Spanish Four world wars between 1688 and 1763British were pushing west into Ohio ValleyFrench needed to retain it to link Canadian holdings with the lower Mississippi valley & Caribbean.
18Journal Entry—10 minutes How do you decide who your friends are? How do you decide who NOT to be friends with?
19Discuss with someone one way people pick their friends (either you or just a general way) Discuss with someone one reason why you are NOT friends with someone (either your or just a general way)
20Effects of the French and Indian War https://www.gilderlehrman.org/multimedia?category=16&theme=all&sortby=chrono&length=all#3296
22Get out your blue chart and notes Students will understand the effects of the French and Indian WarGet out your blue chart and notes
23Please get out a half-sheet of paper. Goal: To understand the nature and effects of the French and Indian WarEntry Task:Please get out a half-sheet of paper.Sharing is caring.
24Role of Native Americans French entered friendship with local Huron IndiansFrench learned their language, customs, lived side by side with themIroquois, the enemy of the Huron, would ally with English b/c of thisIroquois were made up of Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga and Seneca nations and later the Tuscarora.
26Native-European “Friendship” From the three following passagesTake notes (don’t copy word for word)Write what you learn about friendship between:Natives and FrenchNatives and British
27Native friendship with the French In North America the French and Indian War changed the future of the continent and impacted many cultures: English, American, French, Canadian, Huron, Algonquian, Iroquois, etc. Each side, French and British, found allies in Native Americans. The French usually got along with Native Americans because they did not threaten the Native American way of life. In fact, French traders had lived among the Indians for years and had married into their culture. They learned to respect native traditions and did not destroy the land where Native Americans hunted – because fur trade, not farming, was New France’s main source of income. Many Algonquian-speaking nations allied themselves with the French, including the Miami, Ottawa, Potawatomi, Ojibwa, Menominee, Huron, Shawnee, pro-French Seneca, and Delaware allies at Monongahela River.
28Native friendship with the British The British allied themselves with the Iroquois Confederacy or Haudenosaunee (hou-DE-noh-sah-nee). The Iroquois nations: Seneca, Mohawk, Oneida, Cayuga, Onondaga, and later the Tuscarora, had formed a strong alliance in which each nation pledged to protect the others. This alliance made the Iroquois very powerful. It protected them from outside enemies but ensured them of internal peace. Once a year, each nation sent representatives to a council, where concerns were addressed and voted upon. The League’s constitution was written in symbols of unity on a beaded wampum belt. The nations inhabited western New York, which included all the major trade routes of the region and stretched from Niagara Falls to Albany, New York, from New England to Ohio. The Iroquois had been enemies of the French since Samuel de Champlain sided against them by joining forces with the Huron in battles against them in In 1754, the British government asked the Iroquois to side with them. At first, the Iroquois refused. They pointed out that the British and French were fighting over Iroquois land, but when the French and British began to fight in their forests, the Iroquois were pulled in.
29Native-British friendship, continued The British were able to get the aid of the Iroquois with the help of William Johnson, an English fur trader, who settled in the Mohawk Valley. The Mohawk called him Warraghiyagey (war-rag-ee-YAH-gay), which means “Doer of Great Things.” He was married twice to Mohawk women. Through his marriages, Johnson became so influential that he was made a minor British nobleman and commissioned “Colonel of the Six Nations.” Johnson called a meeting of the Iroquois Confederacy, where he promised the nations that their land would be protected. He tried very hard to honor that promise, but others did not.
30Albany Congress (1754) Native-Brit friendship Mass, NH, Conn, RI, NY, Penn, and MDCalled leaders from all the colonies to meet in Albany to discuss Native “problem” and meet with Iroquois.British sought to make allies; gave many gifts (including guns) -- Iroquois refused to commit themselves to the BritishPurpose: Indian affairs, coordinate col. military operations, & forming new colonies in western territoriesLong-range effect: greater colonial unity; strong defense against France.
31Benjamin Franklin “Join or Die” Meant to encourage each Colony to join the cause of the British.If one part bails out, the whole animal will die.
32Results of the war British got most of French territory Colonies’ dreams of expanding westward were now in reachColonists learned how to fightColonies unified for first timeBritish in massive debtResentment in Parliament*
34Proclamation of 1763British declared colonists could not move into the land they just won from FrenchKing said it was to calm Native worriesColonists thought it was because the King could control them more easily if they were just kept close to the coast.
35Thesis statement What is a thesis statement? · Thesis statements are a 1 or 2 sentence argument. They establish the point of view the writer is taking, and the focus of the paper.· Thesis statements set the mood for the paper, and they prepare the reader for facts and details, which you will provide as evidence for your thesis.A Thesis Statement can NEVER be a question! It should be the answer to the question.
36Thesis continuedWhere are thesis statements located?Thesis statements are generally found in the introduction, or opening paragraph, of a research paper. In addition, thesis statements are often restated in the conclusion, or last paragraph.A few general guidelines·The thesis statement does not have to be long or complicated. ·The thesis statement must be supported by using sufficient evidence in your paper. ·The thesis statement can appear anywhere in the opening paragraph, however, it is most likely to be the first or last sentence.
37Thesis continuedAn example to followA thesis statement that is too general serves no purpose! Always keep the statement specific. Two examples:Too General:“The American Revolution had political and economic causes.”Revised:“British policies such as the Sugar, Tea, and Townshend Acts angered the North American colonists because they thought of them as violations of the tradition of salutary neglect, and as a violation of their political rights as Englishmen. Britain’s political and economic crackdown following the French and Indian War was the most important factor contributing to the American Revolution.”
38American Revolution in 30 seconds British vs. North American colonists (13 colonies)Colonists fought the BritishColonists won the warColonists became independent of Great BritainBecame the United STATES of America
39Students will understand how the Sugar Act and Stamp Act demonstrated the end of salutary neglect.Agenda:Check HomeworkSalutary NeglectSugar ActStamp ActWeekendsLetter from Randy Dorn
40Salutary Neglect Salutary: beneficial, having good effects Neglect: being ignored or disregardedThe colonies were given a decent amount of freedom to do as they pleasedIn return, they supported the “mother country” by supplying her with raw materials to be manufactured
411763--A shift happens What was the shift? How would the colonists react?
42The context leading up the Rev. War British in debt from F&I Warnational debt had doubled, from approximately £70 million to £140 million½ of debt due to protection of coloniesBritish wanted colonists to pay 1/3 of maintaining a garrison of 7,500 British soldiers to protect against Native uprisingsCost of administering Britain's North American colonies skyrocketed with acquisition of new landGeorge Grenville--new British Prime Minister under which salutary neglect ended
43Sugar Act – April 1764“it is just and necessary that a revenue should be raised ... for defraying the expenses of defending, protecting, and securing” the coloniesFirst act passed to raise revenue for crownAimed to regulate trade by collecting a tax that colonists had not paid for yearsReduced taxes on molasses but taxed all molassesNot enforced effectively
44Stamp ActPurpose – Raise $ to support the new military force in colonies (George Grenville)March 1765Provisions: Official stamps on paper would serve as proof of paymentTax applied to published materials and legal documents ex: pamphlets, newspapers, diplomas, marriage cert, death cert.Affected all colonists
46Thursday 1.9: Review the Boston Massacre and practice using primary sources Entry Task:Please create a Frayer Model on a blank sheet of paper. (Reminder of the format below)
47PropagandaDefiniton: ideas or statements that are often false or exaggerated and that are spread in order to help a cause, a political leader, a government, etc.Top left quadrant of your frayer model: Write this definition and then put it into your own words with the help of one neighbor.
48Top right quadrant: Examples (you’ll need three) Something that stretches the truth to make you want a product, a person to be the political leader, or to follow a cause, etc.Trash talking another person to make your self/your cause look betterManipulating information to make something look better. Omitting facts, etc.
50Bottom left quadrant: Non-Examples (you’ll need two) informative brochure stating all perspectives on Marijuana usea political brochure explaining for AND against positions on different ballot measuresetc.
51Bottom right quadrant: Illustration Drawing of what you understand propaganda to beAnything that helps you understand the conceptAnything that shows that you understand the concept
52Boston Massacre Review March 5, 1770Boston, MassachusettsRoyal troops had been growing in # in this region to enforce acts (specfically Townshend Acts)(4,000 soldiers to 20,000 Boston residents!)Not called Boston Massacre until 1773 when Paul Revere used the term5 men died
57The first depiction of the event by Henry Pelham
58Discussion Questions While there are many similarities in the engravings by Henry Pelham and Paul Revere, there are also significant differences. Carefully examine both documents and explain how they differ. Consider both the image of the event and the text at the top and bottom of both documents.
592. Revere’s document was well known at the time while Pelham’s was less regarded. Over the years, Revere’s painting has gained notoriety and has been frequently reproduced in textbooks and popular publications. How can this be explained?3. Why has this image been referred to frequently as a work of propaganda?
60HomeworkAdd to your Frayer Model examples, non-examples, and your illustration of what propaganda is.Come to class tomorrow with a full and complete Frayer Model on propaganda.
61Study Guide (coral sheet) 1.10: FINAL prepPlease get out your:Frayer ModelBlue ChartStudy Guide (coral sheet)
62Rest of Semester End of semester is January 24 Unit test on the 21st (our final)This comes from your study guideBe working on this at home/on your own timeMultiple choicematchingA few short answers
63Study GuideThe only term you need to know in the last row is Declaration of IndependenceApply that to your blue-chartWe will be covering that information after the test but I don’t want everyone cramming too much into their heads
64Things you should be able to elaborate on French and Indian WarWhat was it and what 3 impacts it had?Economic and political tensions b/w GB and the coloniesEconomic reasons the colonists were rebellingPolitical reasons the colonists were rebellingBritish actions that caused Colonial reactions (boycotts, fights, etc.) and the effect of those reactionsEx: Stamp Act-->Sons of Liberty-->effective?Ex: Tea Act→Boston Tea Party→Intolerable ActsPropagandaWhat is it and how was it used in after the Boston Massacre?
66Propaganda Frayer Model If you missed something, get it back to me by Tuesday/WednesdayFor instance, if I wrote something like “Paul Revere’s image propaganda?” that means you need to answer the final discussion question about why Revere’s image is referred to as propaganda.In your own words (IYOW), illustration, examples, etc. all needed by Tuesday as well.
67Townshend Acts1767Among other things, it continued to establish the precedent that the British had the right to tax the coloniesIt placed duties/taxes on paper, paint, lead, glass, teaColonists reaction to this?Not good, protests, boycottsLed to more military being placed in the colonies, specifically Boston, to “control the situation”^ That is argued to have led to the Boston Massacre
68Boston Tea PartyDec 16, 1773Supposedly the Sons of Liberty dressed as Natives dumped an entire ship of tea into the Boston harbor. Hurt no one physically but cost $$$.Protest of the Tea Act, continued the “No Taxation w/o Representation” ideals of some PatriotsGB saw this is a childish act that needed to be punished by the...
69Intolerable Acts Known as Coercive Acts in GB 1774 In direct response to the Boston Tea Party. They were the punishment for it.Closed the port of Boston (where the tea had been dumped)Basically, put Mass. gov’t under direct control of the royally appointed governor
70Declaration of Independence July 4, Philadelphia PASigned by Sam Adams, John Hancock, Ben Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, 52 others from all colonies (Committees of Correspondence--What are we going to do about the British??)Held ideals of the Patriots who desired independence (life, liberty, pursuit of happiness)Majority of the document is a list of “abuses” and “usurpations” made by King George III, as seen by the men who signed it.Announced the colonies separation from GBwrongful use of authority
71Reactions to the Dec of Ind Patriots had made their stand--started developing militias and armies--Continental ArmyLoyalists were outraged. They felt that the Patriots had just taken over.GB began to plan how to respond to the rebellious colonies.most powerful military in the world. Best Navy!The world was watching. France in particular decided to side with the colonists
72British strengths and American strengths MilitaryNavyFundingWell paid and well fed soldiersAmericansStrong causeGeographic size of the colonies (large)Inexperienced soldiers but showed competence in fightingFrench alliance
731.15.13 Agenda Lexington and Concord Practice short answer questions If you need to re-turn in your Frayer model please get it out now
74Lexington and Concord April 19, 1775 Communities near Boston British soldiers were secretly ordered to go and destroy military supplies (guns, ammo, etc.) being stored by the Mass. militia (army)Their second job was to find rebels Sam Adams and John HancockPatriots had received word through spying and, among others, Paul Revere rode around warning “The Regulars are coming!”
75continued...The Regulars arrived at Lex. and encountered 70 Colonial minutemen (soldiers who could be ready in a minute)“Shot heard ‘round the world” was fired there and is considered the first shot in the Rev WarThe Regulars “won” both battles but Colonists felt they were successful and used this to gain momentum by encouraging others to join the Patriot cause
76continued...Boston became surrounded by thousands of colonial militia (later became Continental Army) aimed at cutting off the British soldiers in Boston from getting any supplies (Colonial success and motivator)
77What’s so wrong with this? He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to complete the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation. (Dec of Ind)Pass out Dec of Ind
78Things you should be able to elaborate on French and Indian WarWhat was it and what 3 impacts it had?Economic and political tensions b/w GB and the coloniesEconomic reasons the colonists were rebellingPolitical reasons the colonists were rebellingBritish actions that caused Colonial reactions (boycotts, fights, etc.) and the effect of those reactionsEx: Stamp Act-->Sons of Liberty-->effective?Ex: Tea Act→Boston Tea Party→Intolerable ActsPropagandaWhat is it and how was it used in after the Boston Massacre?
79ChallengeMake your French and Indian War answer better by getting as many of theCh 3 Sec 4 words in your answer as possibleWhat was the F&I war and what are 3 impacts that it had?
80Economic reasons colonists were rebelling Def: Relating to the production and management of material wealthBrainstorm as many economic reasons the colonists were upset as possibleUse your blue chart, Dec of Ind, study guide, and notes
81Political reasons colonists were rebelling Def: relating to the structure or affairs of gov’t, laws, or the stateBrainstorm as many political reasons the colonists were upset about as possibleUse blue chart, Dec of Ind, study guide, and notes
82Your lists of Economic/Political reasons colonists were rebelling... Next to the reasons, write the actions Colonists took, if you know.
83British action->Colonists reaction-> Effectiveness? Effective or not^ (in your educated opinion): And Why?
84British actions and Colonial reactions 1st period Sugar Act → boycotts, protestsProclamation of 1763 → end of salutary neglect, colonists start to feel stifledTaxation → Boston Tea PartyNo colonial rep in parliament → Continental Congress → Dec of IndClosing down port of Boston (Intolerable Acts) → smuggling, other colonies unite to help BostonNavigation Acts → smugglingStamp Act → forming the Sons of Libertyincreasing troops in Boston → mobs that encouraged what became the Boston MassacreBoston Massacre → Revere’s propaganda and people joining the Patriot cause
85British action and Colonial reaction 5th period End of salutary neglect → Continental Congress → Declaration of IndependenceTea Act → Boston Tea PartyIntolerable Acts → collected supplies to battle British Regulars, creation of militia → Lexington and ConcordNavigation Acts → colonists boycotted British goods and/or smuggled goodsTaxation w/o representation → Dec of IndTownshend Acts → mobs that then caused the Boston MassacreBoston Massacre → Revere’s propagandaStamp Act → Sons of Liberty formedIntolerable Acts → many colonies helped supply Boston with goods
86British Action and Colonist Reaction 4th period Townshend Acts → dumped tea into Boston harborStamp Act → Creation of the Sons of LibertyIntolerable Acts → Colonies helped each other (specifically Boston)Tea Act → Boston Tea PartyProclamation of 1763 → blamed the King, were upsetsoldiers stationed in Boston → mobs → Boston MassacreLex and Concord → success used to encourage people to join Patriot’s causeBoston Massacre → Paul Revere’s propagandataxation w/o rep → Declaration of Independencetaxation w/o rep → boycotts of British goods
87British Actions/Colonial Reactions 2nd period Townshend Acts → Boston Tea PartyStamp Act → Sons of LibertyProc of 1763→ Couldn’t use land to make profit, not happy about itTroops stationed in Boston → mobs → Boston MassacreBoston Massacre → Propaganda (Revere)Lexington and Concord → Fought back, killed some soldiers, surrounded BostonNavigation Acts → smuggled goodstaxation w/o rep → Declaration of Independencetaxation w/o rep → boycotts of British goods
88Propaganda What is it and how was it used after the Boston Massacre? Use at least 2 historical details for the BM portion of the question
89Questions/ReviewRemember sectionalism? These are things that changed that and unified the colonies:Albany Plan of Union/CongressEnding of Salutary NeglectClosing of the Boston HarborBoston MassacreCommittees of CorrespondenceAny other you can think of?
90Road to the Revolution chart (Blue, purple, white) This is your proof of practice for the testMust be completed to be able to take the testFrayer Model of PropagandaYour other proof of practice100% complete