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Unit 2: Road to the Revolution McGuire 2012-2013 Honors US History.

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1 Unit 2: Road to the Revolution McGuire Honors US History

2 Quick-write in your notes : What is something you want to change? And why? IDEAS TO GET YOU STARTED: It could be anything… (pick one or two) ●About yourself ●About your community ●About our country ●About how people relate to one another ●Etc, etc.

3 Essential Questions ●Was the American War for Independence inevitable? ○Certain to happen; unavoidable ●What was the cause of the American Revolution?

4 Causes of the Revolution We’ll be looking at the years from ~1700 to ~1775 Be taking note of the different political, economic, and social happenings that would cause the colonists’ to move toward revolution

5 Revolutions ●What is a revolution? ○Discuss in a group of two ●Does it always involve war? ●Can one be on a small scale? ●Can one happen over a long period of time? ●Is a revolution only political? Only social? Only economic? ○Write your answers in your journal ●What do you know? ●What do you want to know?

6 Students will understand the Navigation Acts Please get with TWO other people who share a last initial with you. If no one does or you only have a group of two, stand in the middle-front of the room until I pair you up with a third partner

7 Imagine this scenario... ● For the Food Bowl next year, ALL donations must go through Principal Gaines to be counted/approved ● Think through this scenario with the partners I gave you ○ What could possibly go wrong? ○ What are the potential benefits? ○ How would classes feel about this? ○ Why would Principal Gaines want that specific power?

8 Mercantilism Whatever is in bold...copy down ●A nation’s goal was to be as self sufficient as possible and have a positive balance of trade ○didn’t want to have to rely on any other nation for anything ○wanted all the glory ○get more than you give ●To achieve this goal empires conquered lands, created colonies, produced staple agricultural products ○notebooks full of paper!!! ●Colonies existed only for the sake, welfare, enrichment of the mother country. Forbidden to trade with the enemy. ○ This was the logic of the imperial era.

9 Navigation Acts ● The Navigation Acts required all of a colony's imports to be either bought from England or resold by English merchants in England, no matter what price could be obtained elsewhere. ○ This meant that everything had to go through England. (Remember the point of a colony?) ○ Think about all of those cash crops, lumber, furs, fish, etc.

10 Students will understand the nature of and effects of the French and Indian War. Entry Task: Take a guess: Why is this war called the French and Indian War? *HW: read pp in your textbook by Monday*

11 Historical Impact of the Nav. Acts Some historians argue that the Nav Acts negatively impacted colonists’ financially. Others, however, argue that the economic impact was pretty small but it caused significant political friction. Ex: Principal Gaines, Food Bowl donations

12 What’s in a name? ●Seven Years War ○British historians ●French and Indian War ○American historians (for the most part) ●Anglo-French rivalry ○Canadian historians ●La guerre de la Conquete (War of the Conquest) ○French Canadians

13 French and Indian War = 7 Years War War between the British and the French VS.

14 New France around Empires Collide

15 Background on War ●Who: British, French and allied Native Americans on each side ●What: Fighting over Ohio Valley ●Where: Northern colonies; Pennsylvania, New York ●When: ●Why: Land, power

16 Ohio River Valley

17 Clash of Empires: English, French, & Spanish ●Four world wars between 1688 and 1763 ●British were pushing west into Ohio Valley ●French needed to retain it to link Canadian holdings with the lower Mississippi valley & Caribbean.

18 Journal Entry—10 minutes How do you decide who your friends are? How do you decide who NOT to be friends with?

19 1. Discuss with someone one way people pick their friends (either you or just a general way) 2. Discuss with someone one reason why you are NOT friends with someone (either your or just a general way)

20 Effects of the French and Indian War https://www.gilderlehrman.org/multimedia?c ategory=16&theme=all&sortby=chrono&le ngth=all#3296

21 Expansion of Iroquois in Great Lake region

22 Students will understand the effects of the French and Indian War Get out your blue chart and notes

23 Goal: To understand the nature and effects of the French and Indian War Entry Task: Please get out a half-sheet of paper. Sharing is caring.

24 Role of Native Americans ●French entered friendship with local Huron Indians ○French learned their language, customs, lived side by side with them ●Iroquois, the enemy of the Huron, would ally with English b/c of this ○Ir oquois were made up of Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga and Seneca nations and later the Tuscarora.Seneca nations

25 Native American Tribes in America

26 Native-European “Friendship” ●From the three following passages ○Take notes (don’t copy word for word) ○Write what you learn about friendship between: ●Natives and French ●Natives and British

27 Native friendship with the French In North America the French and Indian War changed the future of the continent and impacted many cultures: English, American, French, Canadian, Huron, Algonquian, Iroquois, etc. Each side, French and British, found allies in Native Americans. The French usually got along with Native Americans because they did not threaten the Native American way of life. In fact, French traders had lived among the Indians for years and had married into their culture. They learned to respect native traditions and did not destroy the land where Native Americans hunted – because fur trade, not farming, was New France’s main source of income. Many Algonquian-speaking nations allied themselves with the French, including the Miami, Ottawa, Potawatomi, Ojibwa, Menominee, Huron, Shawnee, pro-French Seneca, and Delaware allies at Monongahela River.

28 Native friendship with the British The British allied themselves with the Iroquois Confederacy or Haudenosaunee (hou-DE-noh-sah-nee). The Iroquois nations: Seneca, Mohawk, Oneida, Cayuga, Onondaga, and later the Tuscarora, had formed a strong alliance in which each nation pledged to protect the others. This alliance made the Iroquois very powerful. It protected them from outside enemies but ensured them of internal peace. Once a year, each nation sent representatives to a council, where concerns were addressed and voted upon. The League’s constitution was written in symbols of unity on a beaded wampum belt. The nations inhabited western New York, which included all the major trade routes of the region and stretched from Niagara Falls to Albany, New York, from New England to Ohio. The Iroquois had been enemies of the French since Samuel de Champlain sided against them by joining forces with the Huron in battles against them in In 1754, the British government asked the Iroquois to side with them. At first, the Iroquois refused. They pointed out that the British and French were fighting over Iroquois land, but when the French and British began to fight in their forests, the Iroquois were pulled in.

29 Native-British friendship, continued The British were able to get the aid of the Iroquois with the help of William Johnson, an English fur trader, who settled in the Mohawk Valley. The Mohawk called him Warraghiyagey (war-rag-ee-YAH-gay), which means “Doer of Great Things.” He was married twice to Mohawk women. Through his marriages, Johnson became so influential that he was made a minor British nobleman and commissioned “Colonel of the Six Nations.” Johnson called a meeting of the Iroquois Confederacy, where he promised the nations that their land would be protected. He tried very hard to honor that promise, but others did not.

30 Albany Congress (1754) Native-Brit friendship ●Mass, NH, Conn, RI, NY, Penn, and MD ●Called leaders from all the colonies to meet in Albany to discuss Native “problem” and meet with Iroquois. ●British sought to make allies; gave many gifts (including guns) -- Iroquois refused to commit themselves to the British ●Purpose: Indian affairs, coordinate col. military operations, & forming new colonies in western territories ●Long-range effect: greater colonial unity; strong defense against France.

31 Benjamin Franklin “Join or Die” Meant to encourage each Colony to join the cause of the British. If one part bails out, the whole animal will die.

32 Results of the war ●British got most of French territory ●Colonies’ dreams of expanding westward were now in reach ●Colonists learned how to fight ●Colonies unified for first time ●British in massive debt ●Resentment in Parliament

33 Results of the war Spain

34 Proclamation of 1763 ●British declared colonists could not move into the land they just won from French o King said it was to calm Native worries o Colonists thought it was because the King could control them more easily if they were just kept close to the coast.

35 Thesis statement What is a thesis statement? · Thesis statements are a 1 or 2 sentence argument. They establish the point of view the writer is taking, and the focus of the paper. · Thesis statements set the mood for the paper, and they prepare the reader for facts and details, which you will provide as evidence for your thesis. A Thesis Statement can NEVER be a question! It should be the answer to the question.

36 Thesis continued Where are thesis statements located?Thesis statements are generally found in the introduction, or opening paragraph, of a research paper. In addition, thesis statements are often restated in the conclusion, or last paragraph. A few general guidelines·The thesis statement does not have to be long or complicated. ·The thesis statement must be supported by using sufficient evidence in your paper. ·The thesis statement can appear anywhere in the opening paragraph, however, it is most likely to be the first or last sentence.

37 Thesis continued An example to followA thesis statement that is too general serves no purpose! Always keep the statement specific. Two examples: Too General: “The American Revolution had political and economic causes.” Revised: “British policies such as the Sugar, Tea, and Townshend Acts angered the North American colonists because they thought of them as violations of the tradition of salutary neglect, and as a violation of their political rights as Englishmen. Britain’s political and economic crackdown following the French and Indian War was the most important factor contributing to the American Revolution.”

38 American Revolution in 30 seconds ●British vs. North American colonists (13 colonies) ●Colonists fought the British ●Colonists won the war ●Colonists became independent of Great Britain ●Became the United STATES of America

39 Students will understand how the Sugar Act and Stamp Act demonstrated the end of salutary neglect. Agenda: Check Homework Salutary Neglect Sugar Act Stamp Act Weekends Letter from Randy Dorn

40 Salutary Neglect ●Salutary: beneficial, having good effects ●Neglect: being ignored or disregarded The colonies were given a decent amount of freedom to do as they pleased In return, they supported the “mother country” by supplying her with raw materials to be manufactured

41 1763--A shift happens ●What was the shift? ●How would the colonists react?

42 The context leading up the Rev. War ●British in debt from F&I War ○national debt had doubled, from approximately £70 million to £140 million ●½ of debt due to protection of colonies ●British wanted colonists to pay 1/3 of maintaining a garrison of 7,500 British soldiers to protect against Native uprisings ●Cost of administering Britain's North American colonies skyrocketed with acquisition of new land ●George Grenville--new British Prime Minister under which salutary neglect ended

43 ●“it is just and necessary that a revenue should be raised... for defraying the expenses of defending, protecting, and securing” the colonies ●First act passed to raise revenue for crown ●Aimed to regulate trade by collecting a tax that colonists had not paid for years ●Reduced taxes on molasses but taxed all molasses ●Not enforced effectively Sugar Act – April 1764

44 Stamp Act ●Purpose – Raise $ to support the new military force in colonies (George Grenville) ●March 1765 ●Provisions: Official stamps on paper would serve as proof of payment ●Tax applied to published materials and legal documents ex: pamphlets, newspapers, diplomas, marriage cert, death cert. ●Affected all colonists

45

46 Thursday 1.9: Review the Boston Massacre and practice using primary sources Entry Task: Please create a Frayer Model on a blank sheet of paper. (Reminder of the format below)

47 Propaganda Definiton: ideas or statements that are often false or exaggerated and that are spread in order to help a cause, a political leader, a government, etc. Top left quadrant of your frayer model: Write this definition and then put it into your own words with the help of one neighbor.

48 Top right quadrant: Examples (you’ll need three) ● Something that stretches the truth to make you want a product, a person to be the political leader, or to follow a cause, etc. ● Trash talking another person to make your self/your cause look better ● Manipulating information to make something look better. Omitting facts, etc.

49

50 Bottom left quadrant: Non-Examples (you’ll need two) ● informative brochure stating all perspectives on Marijuana use ● a political brochure explaining for AND against positions on different ballot measures ● etc.

51 Bottom right quadrant: Illustration ● Drawing of what you understand propaganda to be ● Anything that helps you understand the concept ● Anything that shows that you understand the concept

52 Boston Massacre Review ● March 5, 1770 ● Boston, Massachusetts ● Royal troops had been growing in # in this region to enforce acts (specfically Townshend Acts) ○ (4,000 soldiers to 20,000 Boston residents!) ● Not called Boston Massacre until 1773 when Paul Revere used the term ● 5 men died

53

54 Boston Massacre Review ●Analyze and take notes on the following two images ●We will be having a class discussion about them

55 VS.

56 Paul Revere’s depiction of the Boston Massacre

57 The first depiction of the event by Henry Pelham

58 Discussion Questions l While there are many similarities in the engravings by Henry Pelham and Paul Revere, there are also significant differences. Carefully examine both documents and explain how they differ. Consider both the image of the event and the text at the top and bottom of both documents.

59 2. Revere’s document was well known at the time while Pelham’s was less regarded. Over the years, Revere’s painting has gained notoriety and has been frequently reproduced in textbooks and popular publications. How can this be explained? 3. Why has this image been referred to frequently as a work of propaganda?

60 Homework ●Add to your Frayer Model examples, non-examples, and your illustration of what propaganda is. ●Come to class tomorrow with a full and complete Frayer Model on propaganda.

61 1.10: FINAL prep Please get out your: ●Frayer Model ●Blue Chart ●Study Guide (coral sheet)

62 Rest of Semester ●End of semester is January 24 ●Unit test on the 21st (our final) ●This comes from your study guide ○Be working on this at home/on your own time ●Multiple choice ●matching ●A few short answers

63 Study Guide ●The only term you need to know in the last row is Declaration of Independence ●Apply that to your blue-chart ●We will be covering that information after the test but I don’t want everyone cramming too much into their heads

64 Things you should be able to elaborate on ●French and Indian War ○What was it and what 3 impacts it had? ●Economic and political tensions b/w GB and the colonies ○Economic reasons the colonists were rebelling ○Political reasons the colonists were rebelling ●British actions that caused Colonial reactions (boycotts, fights, etc.) and the effect of those reactions ○Ex: Stamp Act-->Sons of Liberty-->effective? ○Ex: Tea Act→Boston Tea Party→Intolerable Acts ●Propaganda ○What is it and how was it used in after the Boston Massacre?

65 Please get out 1.notes 2.blue chart 3.study guide

66 Propaganda Frayer Model ● If you missed something, get it back to me by Tuesday/Wednesday ○ For instance, if I wrote something like “Paul Revere’s image propaganda?” that means you need to answer the final discussion question about why Revere’s image is referred to as propaganda. ○ In your own words (IYOW), illustration, examples, etc. all needed by Tuesday as well.

67 Townshend Acts ● 1767 ● Among other things, it continued to establish the precedent that the British had the right to tax the colonies ○ It placed duties/taxes on paper, paint, lead, glass, tea ● Colonists reaction to this? ○ Not good, protests, boycotts ● Led to more military being placed in the colonies, specifically Boston, to “control the situation” ● ^ That is argued to have led to the Boston Massacre

68 Boston Tea Party ● Dec 16, 1773 ● Supposedly the Sons of Liberty dressed as Natives dumped an entire ship of tea into the Boston harbor. Hurt no one physically but cost $$$. ● Protest of the Tea Act, continued the “No Taxation w/o Representation” ideals of some Patriots ● GB saw this is a childish act that needed to be punished by the...

69 Intolerable Acts ● Known as Coercive Acts in GB ● 1774 ● In direct response to the Boston Tea Party. They were the punishment for it. ● Closed the port of Boston (where the tea had been dumped) ● Basically, put Mass. gov’t under direct control of the royally appointed governor

70 Declaration of Independence ● July 4, 1776 Philadelphia PA ● Signed by Sam Adams, John Hancock, Ben Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, 52 others from all colonies (Committees of Correspondence--What are we going to do about the British??) ● Held ideals of the Patriots who desired independence (life, liberty, pursuit of happiness) ● Majority of the document is a list of “abuses” and “usurpations” made by King George III, as seen by the men who signed it. ● Announced the colonies separation from GB

71 Reactions to the Dec of Ind 1. Patriots had made their stand--started developing militias and armies--Continental Army 2. Loyalists were outraged. They felt that the Patriots had just taken over. 3. GB began to plan how to respond to the rebellious colonies. a. most powerful military in the world. Best Navy! 4. The world was watching. France in particular decided to side with the colonists

72 British strengths and American strengths ● British ● Military ● Navy ● Funding ● Well paid and well fed soldiers ● Americans ● Strong cause ● Geographic size of the colonies (large) ● Inexperienced soldiers but showed competence in fighting ● French alliance

73 Agenda Lexington and Concord Practice short answer questions If you need to re-turn in your Frayer model please get it out now

74 Lexington and Concord ● April 19, 1775 ● Communities near Boston ● British soldiers were secretly ordered to go and destroy military supplies (guns, ammo, etc.) being stored by the Mass. militia (army) ● Their second job was to find rebels Sam Adams and John Hancock ● Patriots had received word through spying and, among others, Paul Revere rode around warning “The Regulars are coming!”

75 continued... ● The Regulars arrived at Lex. and encountered 70 Colonial minutemen (soldiers who could be ready in a minute) ● “Shot heard ‘round the world” was fired there and is considered the first shot in the Rev War ● The Regulars “won” both battles but Colonists felt they were successful and used this to gain momentum by encouraging others to join the Patriot cause

76 continued... ● Boston became surrounded by thousands of colonial militia (later became Continental Army) aimed at cutting off the British soldiers in Boston from getting any supplies (Colonial success and motivator)

77 What’s so wrong with this? ●He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to complete the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation. (Dec of Ind) ●Pass out Dec of Ind

78 Things you should be able to elaborate on ●French and Indian War ○What was it and what 3 impacts it had? ●Economic and political tensions b/w GB and the colonies ○Economic reasons the colonists were rebelling ○Political reasons the colonists were rebelling ●British actions that caused Colonial reactions (boycotts, fights, etc.) and the effect of those reactions ○Ex: Stamp Act-->Sons of Liberty-->effective? ○Ex: Tea Act→Boston Tea Party→Intolerable Acts ●Propaganda ○What is it and how was it used in after the Boston Massacre?

79 Challenge Make your French and Indian War answer better by getting as many of the Ch 3 Sec 4 words in your answer as possible What was the F&I war and what are 3 impacts that it had?

80 Economic reasons colonists were rebelling Def: Relating to the production and management of material wealth ● Brainstorm as many economic reasons the colonists were upset as possible ● Use your blue chart, Dec of Ind, study guide, and notes

81 Political reasons colonists were rebelling Def: relating to the structure or affairs of gov’t, laws, or the state ● Brainstorm as many political reasons the colonists were upset about as possible ● Use blue chart, Dec of Ind, study guide, and notes

82 Your lists of Economic/Political reasons colonists were rebelling... Next to the reasons, write the actions Colonists took, if you know.

83 British action->Colonists reaction-> Effectiveness? British action: Colonists Reaction: ? Effective or not^ (in your educated opinion): And Why?

84 British actions and Colonial reactions 1 st period 1.Sugar Act → boycotts, protests 2.Proclamation of 1763 → end of salutary neglect, colonists start to feel stifled 3.Taxation → Boston Tea Party 4.No colonial rep in parliament → Continental Congress → Dec of Ind 5.Closing down port of Boston (Intolerable Acts) → smuggling, other colonies unite to help Boston 6.Navigation Acts → smuggling 7.Stamp Act → forming the Sons of Liberty 8.increasing troops in Boston → mobs that encouraged what became the Boston Massacre 9.Boston Massacre → Revere’s propaganda and people joining the Patriot cause

85 British action and Colonial reaction 5th period 1.End of salutary neglect → Continental Congress → Declaration of Independence 2.Tea Act → Boston Tea Party 3.Intolerable Acts → collected supplies to battle British Regulars, creation of militia → Lexington and Concord 4.Navigation Acts → colonists boycotted British goods and/or smuggled goods 5.Taxation w/o representation → Dec of Ind 6.Townshend Acts → mobs that then caused the Boston Massacre 7.Boston Massacre → Revere’s propaganda 8.Stamp Act → Sons of Liberty formed 9.Intolerable Acts → many colonies helped supply Boston with goods

86 British Action and Colonist Reaction 4th period 1.Townshend Acts → dumped tea into Boston harbor 2.Stamp Act → Creation of the Sons of Liberty 3.Intolerable Acts → Colonies helped each other (specifically Boston) 4.Tea Act → Boston Tea Party 5.Proclamation of 1763 → blamed the King, were upset 6.soldiers stationed in Boston → mobs → Boston Massacre 7.Lex and Concord → success used to encourage people to join Patriot’s cause 8.Boston Massacre → Paul Revere’s propaganda 9.taxation w/o rep → Declaration of Independence 10.taxation w/o rep → boycotts of British goods

87 British Actions/Colonial Reactions 2nd period 1.Townshend Acts → Boston Tea Party 2.Stamp Act → Sons of Liberty 3.Proc of 1763→ Couldn’t use land to make profit, not happy about it 4.Troops stationed in Boston → mobs → Boston Massacre 5.Boston Massacre → Propaganda (Revere) 6.Lexington and Concord → Fought back, killed some soldiers, surrounded Boston 7.Navigation Acts → smuggled goods 8.taxation w/o rep → Declaration of Independence 9.taxation w/o rep → boycotts of British goods

88 Propaganda What is it and how was it used after the Boston Massacre? Use at least 2 historical details for the BM portion of the question

89 Questions/Review ● Remember sectionalism? These are things that changed that and unified the colonies: ○ Albany Plan of Union/Congress ○ Ending of Salutary Neglect ○ Closing of the Boston Harbor ○ Boston Massacre ○ Committees of Correspondence ○ Any other you can think of?

90 Road to the Revolution chart (Blue, purple, white) ●This is your proof of practice for the test ●Must be completed to be able to take the test Frayer Model of Propaganda ● Your other proof of practice ● 100% complete


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