Presentation on theme: "High Tide of Imperialism"— Presentation transcript:
1High Tide of Imperialism AP World History – Unit 4Chapter 22 Notes
2Definitions Imperialism: Colonialism: Process through which a state attemptsto control the economic, political, and/or cultural makeup of another state.Colonialism:The most developed form of Imperialism whereby the controlling state invades another state/region so as to exploit its resources and/or for the purposes of large-scale production.Between the West (Europe and America) increased their control of the world’s land mass from 35%-85%!60 million people left Europe.
3Definitions Direct Rule: Indirect Rule: The actual administration of government by representatives of the imperial power, usually supported by military and civilian services.French tried direct rule.Indirect Rule:Ruling through cooperation with a native ruler or rulers who profit from the relationship.British used indirect rule.Example was the Raj in India.
4Definitions Protectorate Sphere of Influence A stronger nation “protects” a weaker nation from others.It still has great influence over the affairs of the “protected” nation and is supposed to listen to advice of mother country.Local rulers left in place.Costs less to run than a colony.Sphere of InfluenceAn area over which a powerful nation claims a “vital interest” and, in reality, claims the right to exert dominance.An outside power claimed economic (trading) privileges.China was the best example.
6EconomicIndustrialization gave the West the ability to conquer other parts of the world.As well as more reasons to do so.Large-scale industrial production made Western factories demand more raw materials.This could be seized from less powerful nations.Western nations needed markets for the goods produced.Colonies would serve as potential markets.Immense wealth allowed the Western world to conquer far-off places.
7MilitaryIndustrialization provided new weaponry for the armies and navies of the West:Ocean-going fleets.Modern rifles and rapid-fire artillery.Native populations rarely resisted Western military forces.Growing need of Western nations to maintain bases and coal/oil stations around the world for naval and civilian fleets.Ships required repairs and refueling stations at strategic locations globally.
8SocialEurope’s rapid population growth during the 1800’s played a role in prompting imperial activity.Immigration to the Americas was an outlet.Millions came to the Americas.Another outlet was to leave home for colonial life.Ambitious or desperate familiesattempted to make their fortunes this way.
9Science and Technology Instrumental in allowing the West to conquer and colonize.Knowledge was power.Advances in transportation, communication, and warfare brought by the Industrial Revolution enabled Western nations to build empires.New wave of exploration allowed for better knowledge of the geography of the world.Medical advancesMade possible for Europeans and Americans to press into tropical regions.Quinine helped relieve symptoms of malaria & yellow fever.
10Cultural Sense of racial superiority was widespread among Westerners. Created a sense that Western nations were entitled to conquer & colonize areas that appeared “backwards” or “primitive”.Cecil Rhodes, British imperialist,“I contend that we are the finest racein the world, and the more of it weinhabit, the better.”
11Cultural Social Darwinism. West had a sense of racial superiority Darwin’s theory of “natural selection” and “survival of the fittest” applied to the human societies.Destruction and conquest of weaker races was nature’s way of improving the species.English poet Rudyard Kipling, “White Man’s Burden”.Attitude was well-meaning and heartfelt, but condescending.European and American missionaries, doctors, scientists, and colonial officials often did good in the places they visited.They did so out of a subconscious sense of racial superiority, and often trampled on the beliefs and ideas of the natives.Interesting fact, he also wrote The Jungle Book.
14British Empire in 1900“The Sun Never Sets on the British Empire”
15India “The Jewel in the Crown” st British trade center at Bombay1690 British establish center at Calcutta1707 Start of Mughal declineSeven Years’ WarBritish East India Co. uses sepoys1857 Sepoy Rebellion1858 Beginning of the British Raj
16The Sepoy MutinyThe East India Company relied on Sepoys, Indians who worked for the Brits, mostly as soldiers.By the mid- 1800’s, the Sepoys were becoming increasingly alarmed with the company’s insatiable appetite for eating up larger and larger chunks of the subcontinent.Company did not respect the local customs or Muslim and Hindu religious customs
17The Sepoy MutinyIn 1857, the Sepoys learned that the bullet cartridges (which had to be bitten off in order to load into the riffle) were greased with pork or beef fat, thus violating Hindu and Muslim dietary laws, the Sepoys rebelled. The fighting continued for two years and the rebellion failed miserably.
18Power in ParliamentThe consequences were huge! In 1858, the British parliament stepped in, took control of India away from the East India Company, and made all of India a crown colony.By 1877, Queen Victoria was recognized as Empress of India.
19Indian Resistance to British Rule ReformsRam Mohan RoyCooperationIndian National Congress (1885)NationalismRadical movement centered on HinduismCalled for independence and revoltsPaved path for Gandhi, etc.Ram Mohan Roy
20Impact of British rule in India Positive:Western educationSocial reformsKeep the caste systemTechnologyRailroadsTelegraph linesBrought into the global market economyNegative:Move towards cash crops lead to faminesDrain India of resourcesTaxes used to pay for army and generous salaries for administratorsIncrease in chronic poverty
21British Imperialism in South Africa st Dutch settlement at Cape Town1815 British annex Cape Town1830 Boers begin Great Trek1867 Diamonds discovered in Orange Free State1885 Gold discovered in TransvaalBoer Wars
22South AfricaPrior to the discovery of gold and diamonds in South Africa was valuable for Europeans only for shipping and military reasons. The Dutch first arrived and settled in Cape Town as a stopping point for ships on the way from Europe to India.In 1795, the British seized Cape Town and the South African Dutch (Boers or Afrikaners) trekked northeast into the interior of South Africa, settling in a region known as Transvaal
23Boer WarsWhen the Dutch discovered diamonds in Transvaal, the British quickly followed, fighting a series of wars for the rights and resources. After years of bloody battles, known as the Boer Wars ( ), the British reigned supreme, and all of South Africa was annexed as part of the ever-expanding British Empire.The Africans were not allowed claims to the gold and diamonds, and were made to work in the mines as their natural resources were sent abroad.
24Union of South AfricaSouth Africa became a significant British colony, complete with extensive investment in infrastructure and institutions. In 1910, the colony had its own constitution, and it became the Union of South Africa, still part of the British Commonwealth, but exercising a considerable amount of self-rule.
25African National Congress Under the Constitutiononly white men could votenative Africans had few rightsIn 1912, educated South Africans organized the African National Congress in an effort to oppose European colonialism.
26French EmpireLight Blue: 1st French colonial empire; Dark Blue: 2nd French colonial empire
27French in Vietnam1600s Jesuit priests arrive in Vietnam; French trade with Vietnam followsFrench help Gia Long unite VietnamMinh Mang replaces Gia Long and begins to persecute ChristiansPersecutions plus pressures in Europe provided justification for French conquestBy 1890s France controlled Vietnam (later would add Cambodia and Laos)
29Vietnamese Resistance Guerrilla warfare – “Save the King Movement”Vietnamese Nationalist Party (VNQDD)Fail to create mass movementReplaced by Communist Party of Vietnam (Viet Minh)Dominated by Ho Chi Minh
30Imperialism in AfricaLeft: Africa in 1878Right: Africa in 1914
31The Berlin Conference: Carving Up the Continent In 1884, Otto von Bismarck hosted the major European powers at the conference in Berlin intended to resolve some differences over various European claims to lands in the African Congo.
32Carving up AfricaBy the end of the conference, the delegates had set up rules for how colonization rights and boundaries would be determined on the continent. Each country wanted to be the first to establish possession in the various parts of Africa.Only Ethiopia and Liberia remained independent of European rule by 1914.
33Political and Economic Advantage Because the Berlin Conference encouraged colonialism solely based on bargaining for political and economic advantage, the boundary lines were based on European concerns, not on African history or culture.tribal lands were cut in halfdisrupted the culture (European schools, Christian missionaries, western business practice)traditional African culture started to break apart (Things Fall Apart)
35EgyptIn theory the Ottomans ruled Egypt from 1517 until 1882, although throughout the nineteenth century, Ottoman rule was very weak. Local rulers, called beys, had far more influence over developments in Egypt than the rulers in Istanbul.When Napoleon tried to conquer Egypt, Muhammed Ali defeated the French and the Ottomans, and gained control of Egypt in 1805.
36Suez CanalAli’s westernization attempts were temporarily halted by his successor Abbas I, but were reinvigorated under subsequent rulers, who worked with the French to build the Suez Canal. The canal, when completed in 1869, connected the Mediterranean Sea to the Indian Ocean, eliminating the need to go around the Cape of Good Hope.
37Selling StockBecause the British had a huge colony n India, the canal became more important to them than anyone else. As Egypt’s finances went into a tailspin because of excessive government spending, Egypt started selling stock in its canal to raise money, stock that the British government eagerly gobbled up.
39Latin American Independence Creoles3.5 million creoles in Latin America by 1800Only 30,000 peninsularesResent tight government and economic regulationsWant to replace peninsulares but retain their privileged positionAmerican RevolutionNapoleon’s Invasion of Spain & Portugal
40Latin American Independence 1810 – Miguel de Hidalgo begins uprising in MexicoIndependence gained by Augustine de Iturbide in 18211819 – Simon Bolivar (right) gains independence for ColumbiaLiberates South America with help from Jose de San MartinAttempt for a unified northern South America fails in 18301821 – Brazil gains independence
41Problems After Independence CaudillosJuan Manuel de Rosas (Argentina)“Machiavelli of the pampas”Kills over 22,000 peopleLatin America had little experience with self- governmentCreoles dominate politicsOnly 5% of male population participated in politicsRole of the Catholic ChurchPoor treatment of natives
42Economic Problems Monroe Doctrine (1823) Economic Imperialism? Britain replaced Spain as the dominant economic force in Latin AmericaEconomy continued to depend upon exportsBritain dominated until 1860Modernization theory vs. Dependency theory
43U.S. Intervention in Latin America Mexican-American War ( )Treaty of Guadalupe-HidalgoSpanish-American WarU.S. gains Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Guam“Independence” for CubaRoosevelt Corollary (1904)Panama CanalCompleted August 1914
45Mexico (1821-1857) 1821-1850’s marked by political instability Went from monarchy to republic to caudillo ruleAntonio Lopez de Santa Ana (left) dominates politics prior to 1850Church remains influentialOwns almost 50% of all productive land in MexicoNationalism grows after Mexican-American War
46Benito Juarez (1861-1872) Liberal mestizo Institutes La Reforma First Mexican ruler without a military backgroundInstitutes La ReformaFocus on land redistribution to improve the condition of nativesConfiscates church landsSpeculators and large landowners buy land instead of nativesMost of Mexico’s peasants were landless by 1900Creates a backlash from Mexican conservatives
47Porfirio Diaz (1876-1910) Industrialized Mexico Built railroadsImproved banking systemFocused on oil & miningDepended on foreign investmentIncreasingly autocraticOppressed political oppositionArrested Francisco Madero in 1910Porfirio Diaz
48Argentina After independence dominated by caudillos Politically stabilized after 1862Economic growth based on exportsPrimary export is beefDependent on foreign capitalLarge numbers of immigrants from Europe3.5 million from Italy, Germany, Russia, etc.
49Latin American Society Few changes for women in Latin AmericaRemained under the control of their fathers and husbandsMachismoLower class had more economic freedomsGained more access to educationRacial castes were formally abolishedRacial and ethnic tensions continuedFew major/ethnic reforms
51Positive: the benefits Infrastructure development.Ports, roads, railroads, etc.Advantages of European institutions.Schools, hospitals, legal systems, etc.Economic development of resources.
52Negative: the disadvantages Exploitation of native populations for “cheap labor”.Resources were exported to the advantage of Europe.Some depleted.Dependency on economic systems.Later, no preparation for independence.Devaluation of traditional cultures.Long term legacy of poverty in the world economic system.Led to independence movements after WWII.Some peaceful and some violent.