Presentation on theme: "Imperialism Notes During the 1800s, nationalism had spread across Europe creating rivalries between nations. Industrialization was the driving force behind."— Presentation transcript:
Imperialism Notes During the 1800s, nationalism had spread across Europe creating rivalries between nations. Industrialization was the driving force behind imperialism. These nations needed resources in order to compete with each other. European countries created global empires (colonies) in order to gain wealth and power.
The new colonies provided raw materials to the European powers as well as a market for selling finished products and goods. The idea of conquering lands and peoples in Africa, Asia and the Americas was called Imperialism.
Reasons for Imperialism Profit Europeans really believed they were helping the peoples and lands they had conquered Believed that the European culture and Christianity was the best way to live
Berlin Conference Belgium was the first European country to claim part of Africa. In 1884-1885, 14 European nations met to set up rules for dividing Africa. No African representation was present at the conference. By 1914, only Liberia and Ethiopia remained independent.
Great Britain Created the largest and most powerful empire in the world. “ the sun never sets on the British Empire ” Controlled land in Canada, parts of South America, the Middle East, Africa, Asia, New Zealand, and Australia. India became known as the “ jewel in the crown ” because of the wealth it provided
G.B. modernized India by building railroads, modern communication systems, and schools. But G.B. oppressed the local culture which led to the Sepoy Rebellion. Sepoys were Indian soldiers hired to protect Great Britain ’ s trading interests. The Sepoys rebelled partly for religious purposes. The new gun cartridges were greased with
beef and pork fat. Hindu and Muslim sepoys led the revolt. Within a year the British had brutally put down the revolt and took full control of India. This period was known as the Raj.
Britian and Africa South Africa was a hotly contested region because of the land and resources. The Dutch, British, and African people all wanted the area. King Shaka had created a large centralized state for the Zulu people which fought against the Dutch first and later the British for control of South Africa.
The Zulus, under King Shaka stood and fought against the European imperialism. The Zulus were defeated at the Battle of Blood River in 1838 by the Dutch. After the death of Shaka Zulu, the Dutch with the help of the British were able to take large of areas of Zulu land. In 1879, a Zulu army (spears and shields)
did defeat a British army (guns and modern weapons) The Zulu victory was short lived, by 1880, the British had defeated the Zulus for good.
Boer War Fought between the Dutch and British for control of South Africa. A Boer (also known as Afrikaners) were originally Dutch settlers who had migrated to the northern part of South Africa. The British controlled the Cape Colony in the southern part of South Africa. Gold was found in Boer territory and British settlers started moving into Boer
and causing war to break out. The Boer War started in 1899 and ended in 1902 with Boer defeat. The war allowed Britain to control all of South Africa
Great Britain and China China was self-sufficient in the 18 th and early 19 th centuries. It refused to have contact with the European nations. Great Britain was determined to open trade with China. Britain found a product that Chinese citizens wanted: opium The Chinese government resisted and
war broke out in 1839 with Britain called the Opium War. Britain won and in 1842 gained the island of Hong Kong and access to 5 Chinese ports for trade. By 1899, foreign countries had forced China to accept an Open Door Policy and participate in trade with them.
The Boxer Rebellion in 1900 was an effort to rid China of all foreign influence. The Boxers killed foreigners, Chinese Christians, attacked and destroyed European owned ships, buildings, businesses. A multinational task force (which included the United States) defeated the Boxer Rebellion.