Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) A complex molecule Contains the genetic information of each chromosome Each gene has information like eye color, hair color, height, handedness
Dominant and Recessive Genotype—underlying genetic makeup Phenotype—traits that are expressed Dominant genes—will always be expressed if present Recessive genes—will not be expressed unless they are in a pair
Sex Linked Traits Traits linked to the X or Y (sex) chromosomes Usually recessive and carried on the X chromosome Appear more frequently in one sex than another Color blindness, baldness, hemophilia, Fragile X
Physical and Psychological Development Related Physical development begins at conception Physical maturity sets limits on psychological ability –visual system not fully functional at birth –language system not functional until much later Prenatal environment can have lifetime influence on health and intellectual ability
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=65BV5d XXxzMhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=65BV5d XXxzM Video
What are the three times in a woman’s life when she can’t get pregnant? Before puberty After menopause And when she is pregnant – (if she gets pregnant with another –SHE IS STILL PREGNANT) ANY OTHER TIME – A WOMAN IS FERTILE
Prenatal Development Prenatal defined as “before birth” Prenatal stage begins at conception and ends with the birth of the child.
Prenatal Development Conception—when a sperm penetrates the ovum Zygote—a fertilized egg Germinal period—first two weeks after conception Embryonic period—weeks three through eight after conception Fetal period—two months after conception until birth
Prenatal Influences on Development Nutrition Anxiety Mother’s general health Maternal age Teratogens—any agent that causes a birth defect (e.g., drugs, radiation, viruses)
Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kKMLfQ _EH7c&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kKMLfQ _EH7c&feature=related
Problems that can occur –Harmful influences that can cross the placenta barrier –Called teratogens-include German measles, radiation, toxic chemicals, sexually transmitted diseases, cigarette smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, prescription and nonprescription drugs.
Teratogens Substances that pass through the placenta’s screen and prevent the fetus from developing normally Includes: radiation, toxic chemicals, viruses, drugs, alcohol, nicotine, etc.
Infant Reflexes Rooting—turning the head and opening the mouth in the direction of a touch on the cheek Sucking—sucking rhythmically in response to oral stimulation Babinski—fanning and curling toes when foot is stroked
Infant Reflexes Moro—throwing the arms out, arching the back and bringing the arms together as if to hold onto something (in response to loud noise or sudden change in position of the head) Grasping—curling the fingers around an object
Stranger Anxiety The fear of strangers an infant displays around 8 months of age Lasts until approx. 2 1/2
Attachment An emotional tie with another person resulting in seeking closeness Children develop strong attachments to their parents and caregivers. Body contact, familiarity, and responsiveness all contribute to attachment.
Factors affecting attachment: -Neglect, abuse, and deprivation adversely affect attachment, however, differences in normal child- rearing practices have no affect
Daycare does not affect attachment Temperament, chronic stress, and rejection can affect attachment Cultural expectations can also play a role
Familiarity Sense of contentment with that which is already known Infants are familiar with their parents and caregivers.
Responsiveness Responsive parents are aware of what their children are doing. Unresponsive parents ignore their children--helping only when they want to.
Securely or Insecurely Attached Securely attached – children will explore their environment when primary caregiver is present Insecurely attached – children will appear distressed and cry when caregiver leaves. Will cling to them when they return
Harry Harlow Did research with infant monkeys on how body contact relates to attachment The monkeys had to chose between a cloth mother or a wire mother that provided food.
The monkeys spent most of their time by the cloth mother.
Effects of Attachment Secure attachment predicts social competence. Deprivation of attachment is linked to negative outcome. A responsive environment helps most infants recover from attachment disruption.