Presentation on theme: "10.1.7: Explain ways in which American families accommodate and care for their infants, children, and elderly. Example: Explains ways in which American."— Presentation transcript:
10.1.7: Explain ways in which American families accommodate and care for their infants, children, and elderly. Example: Explains ways in which American families accommodate and care for young family members.
The beginning of human life begins as the sperm fertilizes the egg. This will form a zygote. The zygote travels down the fallopian tubes and attaches to the uterine wall. The egg cell is surrounded by sperm and chemical changes take place so that only one sperm can fertilize the egg.
There are 3 trimesters in fetal development: In the first trimester, weeks 0-14, the spinal cord and all the major organs develop. In the second trimester, weeks 15-28, the fetus continues to grow and begins to have a regular waking and sleeping cycle. In the third trimester, weeks 29-40, the fetus is able to use all five senses. The fetus is even able to dream.
There are three stages of birth:There are three stages of birth: Dilation- contractions dilate the cervix and these dilations eventually break the amniotic sac, (which is the water breaking)This sac surrounds and protects the embryo as it develops. Passage through birth canal- When the cervix is fully dilated around 10 cnm. the baby is born and cries to clear its lungs of amniotic fluid. Afterbirth- the placenta is still attached by the umbilical cord and contractions continue until all the placenta is pushed out.
As soon as pregnancy is confirmed, a woman should start prenatal care. One step of prenatal care is proper nutrition. This will help the developing fetus receive the proper nutrients that is needs for growth and development.
During pregnancy, the mother should watch what she takes into her body. Tobacco can cause low birth weight, premature births, and even deaths. Consuming alcohol can lead to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). This could lead to permanent damage to the fetus. Even taking prescription and over-the-counter drugs can be harmful to the fetus and should be verified by a physician.
Most pregnancies proceed with very few problems, but there are the few that have some complications. miscarriageOne of these is a miscarriage, the spontaneous expulsion of the fetus. stillbirthA dead fetus that is expelled from the body after the 20 th week is a stillbirth. Ectopic PregnancyAnother problem is Ectopic Pregnancy. This happens when the fertilized egg implants in something other than the uterus and can’t get the right nutrients.
HeredityHeredity is the passing of traits from parents to children. ChromosomesChromosomes are the structures that determine the inherited traits. GenesGenes carry the codes for specific traits. The genes are split up into dominant and recessive genes. The recessive genes are typically only found when the dominant genes are not present.
A genetic disorder is a disorder that is partially or completely caused by a defect in genes. Amniocentesis, is where a syringe is inserted into the amniotic sac through the abdominal wall. Chronic Villi Sampling, where a small piece of membrane is removed from in the placenta. Many of the genetic disorders are caused by bad genes. Gene Therapy, inserting a normal gene into human cells to replace the bad ones, can be used to treat only some genetic diseases.
There are four main stages of childhood: infancy, early, middle, and late childhood. During each stage there developmental tasks that the child has to learn during the stage. During infancy the child learns trust. The child has to trust the parents to do everything for them. This is also a time of growth. The child grows more during infancy than in any other period. Early childhood is when the child begins to feel proud of their accomplishments. They learn how to do tasks by themselves, such as walking, talking and dressing themselves, and develop a sense of autonomy, confidence that someone can control their own body, impulses and environment.
middle childhoodDuring middle childhood, the child has to learn responsibility and how to start play activities instead of following another’s lead. They must learn about and control their emotions. The child will also begin asking many questions. Late childhoodLate childhood is when the child learns basic math, writing, and reading. They learn to get along with others in the community.
Vision and hearing problems can affect a child’s development dramatically. Children should be given vision and hearing test as newborns and continually throughout childhood. Schools will usually provide tests as the kids go through school. Scoliosis, an abnormal side-to- side curve of the spine, is another health problem that can possibly go unnoticed all the way up to the teen years. This is also usually checked regularly during school.