2Module 9: Developmental Issues, Prenatal Development, and the Newborn Topics we’ll be bringing to lifeIssues in Thinking about DevelopmentNature and NurtureContinuity and StagesStability and ChangePrenatal DevelopmentConception ZygoteEmbryo FetusTeratogen RisksNewborn Skills and BehaviorsNo animation.
3Module 9: Developmental Issues, Prenatal Development, and the Newborn No animation.
4Topics we’ll be bringing to life Issues in Thinking about DevelopmentContinuity and StagesStability and ChangePrenatal DevelopmentConception ZygoteEmbryo FetusTeratogen RisksNewborn Skills and BehaviorsNo animation.
5Issues in Developmental Psychology nature and nurtureHow do genes and experience guide development over our lifespan?change and stabilityIn what ways do we change as we age, and in what ways do we stay the same?Issues in Developmental Psychologycontinuity and stagesClick to reveal issues.Instructor: You can mention here that nature and nurture don’t need further summary, because we just finished a chapter about it. However, if you skipped that chapter, you may want to go to the presentation for that chapter and use slides that summarize that issue, as well as slides that show the cell, chromosomes, and genes.Is development a gradual change or are there some leaps to a new way of thinking or behaving?
6Nature, Nurture, and Differences Childhood involves a genetically-driven process of maturation, AND a process of interacting with, and being formed by, the world of objects and media, parents and peers.When racial or ethnic or gender groups of people differ from each other in traits or abilities, the differences within groups tends to be greater than the difference between groups. Why?The environment and culture affects all of us, but due to our similar biological heritage, it affects us in much the same way.Genetic variations within groups affect traits and behavior more than the variations between groups.
7Continuity vs. Stages, Nurture and Nature Researchers who see development as a function of experience tend to see development as continuous and gradual.Nurture is continuous.Researchers who focus on biological maturation see spurts of growth and other changes that make one stage of development very different from another.Nature has stages.Automatic animation.
8Stages and ContinuityThree different types of development--cognitive, moral, and psychosocial--have been running in parallel.Are they really separate stages, or a continuous process of development?Click to reveal bullets and example.
9Change and StabilityAre there some parts of who we are that remain stable throughout development?Our temperament? Our overall personality?Do some of our attributes change during development (even while we maintain our sense of identity)?Our abilities? Our interests? Our habits? Our traits?Click to reveal bullets.Some of these questions will be addressed in later chapters on intelligence and personality.
10Stability and ChangeAre we essentially the same person over long periods? Some answers from research:In general, temperament seems stable.Traits can vary, especially attitudes, coping strategies, work habits, and styles of socializing.Personality seems to stabilize with age.Stability helps us form identity, while the potential for change gives us control over our lives.Click to reveal bullets.
11Starting the Path to Personhood: Prenatal Development and the Newborn ConceptionPrenatal DevelopmentThe Competent NewbornAutomatic animation.Instructor: You can note here (unless you think it’s obvious) that “prenatal” literally means “before birth.”You could ask students to answer or think about these questions over the next group of slides:--Where do you think the study of development should begin: at birth, or in utero?--At what stage in this process does it make sense to talk about the process of nature AND nurture? Is there “nurture” in utero?
12In the beginning: Conception Sperm and egg unite to bring genetic material together and form one organism: the zygote (the fertilized cell).ConceptionNo animation.What does the Michael Phelps cartoon from the book illustrate?...that most sperm do not make it to the egg.Of those that make it, only one sperm is allowed through the protective coating. Then, after several hours, the nuclei fuse, which might be considered the actual moment of conception.
13Prenatal Development The Zygote Stage: First 10 to 14 Days After the nuclei of the egg and sperm fuse, the cell divides in 2, 4, 8, 16, 100…Milestone of the zygote stage: cells begin to differentiate into specialized locations and structuresImplantation: The Embyro, 2 to 8 weeksThis stage begins with the multicellular cluster that implants in the uterine wall.Milestone of the implantation stage: differentiated cells develop into organs and bonesClick to reveal bullets.Instructor: You can ask students if they think that teratogens qualify as a “nurture” factor influencing development. If we recall that “nurture” really means “environmental influences” and not “cuddling,” it should be clear that this is an example of how nature and nurture both operate before birth.Sometimes, the zygote first fully splits into two; this is the start of identical twins.The outer layer of cells becomes the placenta, the mechanism for providing nutrients and oxygen to the child and filtering out toxins; it will be more visible on the next slide.Embryo
14The FetusAt nine weeks, hands and face have developed; the embryo is now called a fetus (“offspring”).PlacentaAt 4 months, many more features develop.Milestone of the fetal stage: by six months, the fetus might be able to survive outside the wombClick to reveal bullets.
15Fetal Life: The Dangers Teratogens (“monster makers”) are substances such as viruses and chemicals that can damage the developing embryo or fetus.Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) refers to cognitive, behavioral, and body/brain structure abnormalities caused by exposure to alcohol in the fetal stage.Click to reveal bullets.Examples of noticeable problems in FAS: hyperactivity, learning problems, emotion control problems, and unusual facial size, shape, and features. The underlying problem of FAS may be that alcohol switches genes on and off, diverting the normal course of development.
16Fetal life: Responding to Sounds Fetuses in the womb can respond to sounds.Fetuses can learn to recognize and adapt to sounds that they previously heard only in the womb.Fetuses can habituate to annoying sounds, becoming less agitated with repeated exposure.Click to reveal bullets.Evidence of learning to recognize sounds from inside the womb: immediately after birth, newborns prefer mother’s voice, and even coo and cry in the tones of her language.Evidence of habituating to annoying sounds: after birth, newborns can ignore sounds that would agitate other newborns.
17After the fetal period, the child is born! No animation.
18Inborn Skills The Competent Newborn Reflexes are responses that are inborn and do not have to be learned.Newborns have reflexes to ensure that they will be fed.The rooting reflex--when something touches a newborn’s cheek, the infant turns toward that side with an open mouth.The sucking reflex can be triggered by a fingertip.Crying when hungry is the newborn talent of using just the right sounds to motivate parents to end the noise and feed the baby.Click to reveal bullets.How do we conclude that these abilities are inborn?...because they are evident within hours of birth.The rooting reflex triggers the baby to get in position for breastfeeding.
19More Inborn AbilitiesNewborns (one hour old!) will look twice as long at the image on the left.What can we conclude from this behavior?Click to show smiley face.Newborns might have an inborn preference for looking at faces, AND the ability to distinguish a facelike pattern of dots and lines from a less face-like pattern!You could ask if students can describe a possible survival/evolutionary function of this face preference. Perhaps this preference might help infants seek out and make eye contact with people rather than light bulbs, to assure that others are motivated to care for them.