7Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) A complex double stranded moleculeContains the inherited genetic information of each chromosome
8GenesUnit of DNA on chromosome that encodes particular instructions for who you will become and how your body will functionEach gene has information like eye color, hair color, height, handedness
9Your Unique GenotypeAt conception, you receive 23 chromosomes from your father’s sperm and 23 from your mother’s eggThey match together to form 23 pairsThese 46 chromosomes represent your unique genotype (genetic makeup)
10Why are body cells so different? Different cells develop because different genes are “expressed” or activatedSome genes are expressed for a few hours, some are always expressed, and some are never expressedExample: all humans carry thegenes to develop a tail,but we don’t becausethe gene is rarelyactivated inour lifetimes
11Human Genome Complete set of DNA in the human organism Human genome consists of 20,000 to 25,000 genesAll humans have same basic set of genes, but the genes can come in two different versions (alleles)The unique combination of alleles is what makes your genotype (and you) special!
12Dominant-Recessive Gene Pair Best known pattern of allelesDominant genes—will always be expressed if presentRecessive genes—will not be expressed unless they are in a pair
13Sex Chromosome 23rd pair of chromosomes Determines a person’s biological sex
16Phenotype Characteristics that are actually observed in an organism Your blueprint is not set in stone—it can change depending on environmental factorsExample: Freckles are your dominant gene, but will only appear when time is spent in the sunPeople can have very similar genotype, but their phenotypes will differ if they live in different environments
17Stop & ThinkQuick draw!Draw/write the steps to the creation of a zygote (fertilized egg)
19What are the three times in a woman’s life when she can’t get pregnant? Before pubertyAfter menopauseAnd when she is pregnant – (if she gets pregnant with another –SHE IS STILL PREGNANT)ANY OTHER TIME – A WOMAN IS FERTILE
20ConceptionChromosomes from mother and father morph together to form a single cell, the zygoteThe fertilized eggOver 9 months, this one cell develops into approximately a trillion cells that make up a newborn babyCrazy!
21Prenatal Development Prenatal defined as “before birth” Prenatal stage begins at conception and ends with the birth of the childThree stages of prenatal development
22Stage 1: Germinal (Zygotic) Period First two weeks after conceptionSingle cell zygote rapidly divides and develops into a cluster of cells (embryo)
24Stage 2: Embryonic Period Weeks 3-8 after conceptionMost vulnerable stageOrgans and major systems of the body form, including sex organsEmbryo housed in protective, fluid-filled amniotic sacUmbilical cord delivers nourishment, oxygen, and water to embryoPlacenta acts as filter to protect embryo from harmful things in mother’s blood
25Stage 2: Embryonic Period Placenta can only protect against so much, and can not filter out the harmful substances in mother’s blood (teratogens)Can cause abnormal development and birth defectsKnown teratogens:RadiationToxic chemicalsViruses and bacteriaDrugs taken by mother during pregnancyBy end of this stage, embryo begins to resemble human and weighs about an ounce
26Other Prenatal Influences on Development NutritionAnxietyMother’s general healthMaternal age
32After the germinal stage, what is the next stage? DiscussionWhat is conception?What is a zygote?After the germinal stage, what is the next stage?What are the main characteristics of the embryonic stage?
33Why should you stop drinking, smoking, doing drugs while pregnant?
40Writing PromptYour friend is pregnant with her first child. She is a long-time smoker and still has a beer with dinner when she goes out (she’s 21!). Knowing what you know about pregnancy, what would you tell her? What would you show her?5 sentences; use specifics!Use back of quick draw to write
41The Beginnings of Life: The Newborn http://www. youtube. com/watch
42Toddler: From about 1 year to 3 years of age Infant, Toddler, ChildInfant: First yearToddler: From about 1 year to 3 years of ageChild: Span between toddler and teen
45Infant ReflexesRooting—turning the head and opening the mouth in the direction of a touch on the cheekSucking—sucking rhythmically in response to touching baby’s lipsGrasping—putting a finger on baby’s palms will cause them to grip tightlyReflexes later replaced with voluntary behaviors
46SensesNewborn's senses are are very attuned to peopleBabies 10 minutes old will move head to follow face, but not other objectWithin hours, newborns show preference towards mother’s voice and face over stranger
47SensesNewborn’s vision is extremely nearsighted at birth (can see close objects more clearly)6-12 inches is optimalThe world is still pretty fuzzy for infants in first few months
55TemperamentInstinctive predispositions to consistently behave and react in a certain way
56Temperament “easy” babies – eat and sleep regularly A baby’s temperament is apparent after just a few hours of birth“easy” babies – eat and sleep regularly“difficult” – unpredictable, intense, & irritable“slow-to-warm-up” – low activity level, withdraw from new, adapt slowly
57Temperament-Reactivity The high-reactivity – babies react intensely to new experiences and strangersLow reactivity – babies are calmer and bolder, more sociable
58Temperament Differences in temperament have genetic biological basis Can also be influenced by environment and cultural attitudesYour temperament as a baby can change into childhood and older stages of life
59AttachmentAn emotional tie with another person resulting in seeking closenessChildren develop strong attachments to their parents and caregivers.Body contact, familiarity, and responsiveness all contribute to attachment.
60Factors Affecting Attachment Neglect, abuse, and deprivation adversely affect attachmentHowever, differences in normal child-rearing practices have no affect
61Factors Affecting Attachment Daycare does not affect attachmentTemperament, chronic stress, and rejection can affect attachmentCultural expectations can also play a role
62Familiarity Sense of contentment with that which is already known Infants are familiar with their parents and caregivers.
63ResponsivenessResponsive parents are aware of what their children are doing.Unresponsive parents ignore their children--helping only when they want to.
64Attachment TheorySecurely attached – children will explore their environment when primary caregiver (secure base) is presentInsecurely attached – children will appear distressed and cry when caregiver leaves and will cling to them when they return
65Harry HarlowDid research with infant monkeys on how body contact relates to attachmentThe monkeys had to chose between a cloth mother or a wire mother that provided food