+ Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) A complex double stranded molecule Contains the inherited genetic information of each chromosome
+ Genes Unit of DNA on chromosome that encodes particular instructions for who you will become and how your body will function Each gene has information like eye color, hair color, height, handedness
+ Your Unique Genotype At conception, you receive 23 chromosomes from your father’s sperm and 23 from your mother’s egg They match together to form 23 pairs These 46 chromosomes represent your unique genotype (genetic makeup)
+ Why are body cells so different? Different cells develop because different genes are “expressed” or activated Some genes are expressed for a few hours, some are always expressed, and some are never expressed Example: all humans carry the genes to develop a tail, but we don’t because the gene is rarely activated in our lifetimes
+ Human Genome Complete set of DNA in the human organism Human genome consists of 20,000 to 25,000 genes All humans have same basic set of genes, but the genes can come in two different versions (alleles) The unique combination of alleles is what makes your genotype (and you) special!
+ Dominant-Recessive Gene Pair Best known pattern of alleles Dominant genes—will always be expressed if present Recessive genes—will not be expressed unless they are in a pair
+ Sex Chromosome 23 rd pair of chromosomes Determines a person’s biological sex
+ Phenotype Characteristics that are actually observed in an organism Your blueprint is not set in stone—it can change depending on environmental factors Example: Freckles are your dominant gene, but will only appear when time is spent in the sun People can have very similar genotype, but their phenotypes will differ if they live in different environments
+ Stop & Think Quick draw! Draw/write the steps to the creation of a zygote (fertilized egg)
+ Prenatal Development http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gaK0VPV9NlE
+ What are the three times in a woman ’ s life when she can ’ t get pregnant? Before puberty After menopause And when she is pregnant – (if she gets pregnant with another –SHE IS STILL PREGNANT) ANY OTHER TIME – A WOMAN IS FERTILE
+ Conception Chromosomes from mother and father morph together to form a single cell, the zygote The fertilized egg Over 9 months, this one cell develops into approximately a trillion cells that make up a newborn baby Crazy!
+ Prenatal Development Prenatal defined as “before birth” Prenatal stage begins at conception and ends with the birth of the child Three stages of prenatal development
+ Stage 1: Germinal (Zygotic) Period First two weeks after conception Single cell zygote rapidly divides and develops into a cluster of cells (embryo)
+ Stage 2: Embryonic Period Weeks 3-8 after conception Most vulnerable stage Organs and major systems of the body form, including sex organs Embryo housed in protective, fluid-filled amniotic sac Umbilical cord delivers nourishment, oxygen, and water to embryo Placenta acts as filter to protect embryo from harmful things in mother’s blood
+ Stage 2: Embryonic Period Placenta can only protect against so much, and can not filter out the harmful substances in mother’s blood (teratogens) Can cause abnormal development and birth defects Known teratogens: Radiation Toxic chemicals Viruses and bacteria Drugs taken by mother during pregnancy By end of this stage, embryo begins to resemble human and weighs about an ounce
+ Other Prenatal Influences on Development Nutrition Anxiety Mother’s general health Maternal age
+ Writing Prompt Your friend is pregnant with her first child. She is a long-time smoker and still has a beer with dinner when she goes out (she’s 21!). Knowing what you know about pregnancy, what would you tell her? What would you show her? 5 sentences; use specifics! Use back of quick draw to write
+ The Beginnings of Life: The Newborn http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m9QndNXcnCU
+ Infant, Toddler, Child Infant: First year Toddler: From about 1 year to 3 years of age Child: Span between toddler and teen
+ Infant Reflexes Rooting—turning the head and opening the mouth in the direction of a touch on the cheek Sucking—sucking rhythmically in response to touching baby’s lips Grasping—putting a finger on baby’s palms will cause them to grip tightly Reflexes later replaced with voluntary behaviors
+ Senses Newborn's senses are are very attuned to people Babies 10 minutes old will move head to follow face, but not other object Within hours, newborns show preference towards mother’s voice and face over stranger
+ Senses Newborn’s vision is extremely nearsighted at birth (can see close objects more clearly) 6-12 inches is optimal The world is still pretty fuzzy for infants in first few months
+ Temperament Instinctive predispositions to consistently behave and react in a certain way
+ Temperament A baby ’ s temperament is apparent after just a few hours of birth “ easy ” babies – eat and sleep regularly “ difficult ” – unpredictable, intense, & irritable “ slow-to-warm-up” – low activity level, withdraw from new, adapt slowly
+ Temperament-Reactivity The high-reactivity – babies react intensely to new experiences and strangers Low reactivity – babies are calmer and bolder, more sociable
+ Temperament Differences in temperament have genetic biological basis Can also be influenced by environment and cultural attitudes Your temperament as a baby can change into childhood and older stages of life
+ Attachment An emotional tie with another person resulting in seeking closeness Children develop strong attachments to their parents and caregivers. Body contact, familiarity, and responsiveness all contribute to attachment.
+ Factors Affecting Attachment Neglect, abuse, and deprivation adversely affect attachment However, differences in normal child-rearing practices have no affect
+ Daycare does not affect attachment Temperament, chronic stress, and rejection can affect attachment Cultural expectations can also play a role Factors Affecting Attachment
+ Familiarity Sense of contentment with that which is already known Infants are familiar with their parents and caregivers.
+ Responsiveness Responsive parents are aware of what their children are doing. Unresponsive parents ignore their children--helping only when they want to.
+ Attachment Theory Securely attached – children will explore their environment when primary caregiver (secure base) is present Insecurely attached – children will appear distressed and cry when caregiver leaves and will cling to them when they return http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s608077NtNI
+ Harry Harlow Did research with infant monkeys on how body contact relates to attachment The monkeys had to chose between a cloth mother or a wire mother that provided food
The monkeys spent most of their time by the cloth mother
+ Effects of Attachment Secure attachment predicts social competence Deprivation of attachment is linked to negative outcome A responsive environment helps most infants recover from attachment disruption