Prenatal development and care lesson 1 A human fetus begins with the joining of a female egg and a male sperm. A pregnant female must avoid tobacco, alcohol, drugs, and enviromental hazards. Expectant parents have many options regarding the location and method of delivery of their baby. The birth of a baby takes place in three steps: labor, delivery, and afterbirth. Prenatal refers to the steps that a pregnant female can take to provide for her own health and the health of her baby.
Weight during pregnancy Most pregnant females need to consume only an additional 300 calories per day. Females at a healthy weight before becoming pregnant can gain between 20 to 35 pounds. Gaining to little weight can result in a small, undeveloped baby. Gaining to much weight can result in an early delivery Extra weight also increases the mothers risk of high blood pressure, diabetes, and varicose veins. During pregnancy, good nutrition and rest keep both the mother and the developing child healthy.
Fitness during pregnancy Physical activity can help a pregnant female maintain a healthy weight during pregnancy At the end of the pregnancy it may become more difficult to maintain a fitness program An expectant mother should discuss the importance of exercise and exercise programs with her health care provider.
Heredity and Genetics A persons DNA determines his or her individual characteristics. The chemical unit that makes up chromosomes is called DNA Children inherit genetic traits from their parents Genetic disorders are caused by defects in genes. Genetic research provides an opportunity to correct some genetic disorders. Genes, are the basic units of heredity
Dominant and recessive genes. Most human cells have 46 chromosomes, or 23 pairs. However egg and sperm cells have half that number These chromosomes carry the hereditary traits of the parents which are past onto their children Each human trait is determined by at least one pair one genes
DNA The chemical unit that makes up chromosomes is called DNA. Genetic research has resulted many ways to diagnose and treat genetic diseases. One pair of chromosomes determines gender. Heredity and environment can affect the human growth and development. Chromosomes from a sperm and an egg unite the hereditary traits from parents.
Battling genetic diseases A baby's diet can be altered to stop possible mental retardation caused by this genetic disorder. Newborns are required to be tested for phenylketonuria. Genes used to treat diseases are not interested directly into human beings. These diseases are called, genetic disorders, which are disorders caused partly or completely by a defect in genes.
Birth through childhood Our lives can be divided into eight developmental stages. Each of the eight stages is associated with certain developmental tasks each child passes through four different stages or development during infancy and childhood. Developmental tasks, events that need to happen in order for a person to become healthy, and a mature adult.
Infancy Infancy is the time of fastest growth in a persons life. It is a time of learning: how to eat solid food, how to sit up, how to crawl, and how to walk. Infants also learn to trust others during this time.
childhood During early childhood, children begin to be aware of there accomplishments and are eager to try new tasks and to learn new things. During this stage children also begin to learn to play as part of a group. during the middle childhood, children learn to initiate play rather than following the lead of others. school becomes an important part of a child’s life during the late childhood. Autonomy, the confidence that a person can control his or her own body, impulses, and enviroment.
Childhood health screenings Vision and hearing impairments are two problems that can affect a child’s ability to learn and develop. Nearly one in every four school-aged children in the united states has vision problems As well has hearing problems, hearing impairment can also affect a childs ability to learn. Scoliosis, an abnormal lateral, or side-to-side, curvature at the spine.
Quiz 1.What are some of the changes that occur during the second trimester 2. During delivery what must happen before the baby can pass through the birth canal 3. What are some developmental tasks children learn in early childhood 4. Define the terms chromosomes and genes 5. What is the union of a sperm cell and an egg cell called 6. How can drinking alcohol during pregnancy damage a fetus 7. How many chromosomes do most human cells have 8 name how many ways pregnant women can prevent birth defects 9. What age do kids start to be in groups of friends 10. What comes after a child is borne