Presentation on theme: "Developmental Psychology Chapter 4. Those who study psych. development … Developmental Psychologists – study physical, mental and social changes throughout."— Presentation transcript:
Developmental Psychology Chapter 4
Those who study psych. development … Developmental Psychologists – study physical, mental and social changes throughout the human life cycle. Q What is the ideal age or ages to be? Why? Q What is the worst age or ages to be? Why?
Womb to Tomb
“Womb to Tomb” We are continually developing from “womb to tomb.” This chapter will look at the following issues and how they affect development Nature/Nurture Genetic inheritance vs. experience Continuity/Stages Is development a continual process or does it progress through stages? Stability/Change Do early traits persist throughout life or do we become different people as we age? bringing up monkey bringing up monkey
Stages of Prenatal Development Conception - ovary releases a mature egg, sperm enters the egg, egg and sperm nuclei fuse within 12 hours of intercourse Germinal Stage – 2 week period following conception Zygote – fertilized egg, it enters into a 2 week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo Fewer than half of zygotes survive the first two weeks Zygote’s outer layer attaches to uterine wall, forming the placenta Nourishment passes through the placenta
Stages of Prenatal Development Embryonic Stage – 2 to 8 weeks following conception Cells inside the placenta become embryo Embryo – developing human organism – 2 weeks after fertilization to 2 months During this period, cells begin to differentiate – specialize in structure and function
Stages of Prenatal Development Fetal Stage – 2 months to Birth Fetus – developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth 6 months – organs are formed and functional, fetus is responsive to sound Video - early development (2:55) Video - early development (2:55)
Nature v. Nurture and Prenatal Dev. Teratogens – harmful agents (such as chemicals and viruses) that can reach the embryo or fetus as it develops and cause harm. 8 to 16 weeks is the CRITICAL PERIOD for brain development. If brain development does not occur properly then irreparable damage will be done Video- Teratogens 4:30 Video- Teratogens 4:30 Heroin addicts have children that are born addicted to heroin Viruses such as AIDS can be passed from mother to child Alcohol enters the fetus via the bloodstream and could cause Fetal Alcohol Syndrome FAS – results from heavy drinking by the mother during pregnancy, especially within the first 12 weeks. Physical and psychological problems may develop due to FAS (short stature, flattened nose, short eye openings, mental retardations, hyperactivity)Video- Fetal Alcohol Syndrome 0:00 skip to 4:30Video- Fetal Alcohol Syndrome 0:00
Nature v. Nurture and Prenatal Dev. Genetic Problems Besides teratogens, the fetus can also be affect by certain genetic factors Ex. Downs Syndrome – Chromosomal abnormality – extra 21 st chromosome. Characterized by abnormal physical traits (folding of skin around the eye, wide tongue, flattened facial features, and stunted growth) and mental retardation.
Infancy Development We are born with specific reflexes Rooting Reflex – a baby’s tendency, when touched on the cheek, to open the mouth and search for food Sucking Reflex – when an object is placed in the baby’s mouth, the baby will suck Sucking Reflex Moro Reflex – baby flings limbs and then retracts when startled Moro Reflex Grasping Reflex – if an object is placed in the palm or foot pad the baby will try to grasp the object Grasping Reflex Babinski Reflex – when the foot is stroked, a baby will curl its toes. Babinski Reflex Stepping Reflex – baby will move one foot after another, making a stepping motion. Stepping Reflex Video- Primary ReflexesPrimary Reflexes
Habituation – decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation Infant will lose interest in a stimulus with repeated exposure Ex. If you watch scary movies a lot you may not feel afraid when viewing them because you’ve been habituated to scary movies. Video – example of habituation Video – example of habituation Video- Habituation 2:45 Video- Habituation 2:45
Sensory Development Babies prefer to look at faces or face-like objects Faces – recognizes mothers face by 3 months Hearing – Hearing develops before birth At 1 month, an infant can recognize the mothers voice Video- Recognizing Mother's voice Video- Recognizing Mother's voice Seeing – born almost legally blind but babies can see 8-12 inches in front of them Touch – infant shows a number of reflexes at birth Smell and Taste – At six weeks, infant can smell the difference between mother and stranger
Memory Development Q What is your earliest memory (not including pictures you’ve seen) Because we lack neural connections, many of our early memories do not exist Average earliest memory – 3.5 years old At the age of 4, we begin organizing our memories differently
Motor Development Maturation – biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior. Maturation is relatively uninfluenced by experience Process can be faster or slower depending on the environment Babies roll over before they sit up, sit up before they crawl, and crawl before they walk. (Blind children do these things as well) – Nature or Nurture? Genetics – twins begin sitting up and walking on nearly the same day.
At what age can a child do the following? 1. Laugh 2. Pedal a tricycle 3. Sit without support 4. Feel ashamed 5. Walk unassisted 6. Stand on one foot for 10 seconds 7. Recognize and smile at the mother and father 8. Kick a ball forward 9. Make two word sentences 10. Think about things not seen
Developmental Norms – avg. age at which children perform various skills/behaviors. Laugh- 2 months Pedal a tricycle- 24 mths Sit without support 5-6 mths. Feel ashamed 24 mths Walk unassisted 12 mths Stand on one foot for 10 seconds 4.5 yrs. Recognize and smile at the mother and father 4-5 months Kick a ball forward 20 mths Make two word sentences 24 mths Think about things not seen mths