2Those who study psych. development … Developmental Psychologists – study physical, mental and social changes throughout the human life cycle.Q What is the ideal age or ages to be? Why?Q What is the worst age or ages to be? Why?
4“Womb to Tomb”We are continually developing from “womb to tomb.” This chapter will look at the following issues and how they affect developmentNature/NurtureGenetic inheritance vs. experienceContinuity/StagesIs development a continual process or does it progress through stages?Stability/ChangeDo early traits persist throughout life or do we become different people as we age?bringing up monkey
5Stages of Prenatal Development Conception - ovary releases a mature egg, sperm enters the egg, egg and sperm nuclei fuse within 12 hours of intercourse Germinal Stage – 2 week period following conceptionZygote – fertilized egg, it enters into a 2 week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryoFewer than half of zygotes survive the first two weeksZygote’s outer layer attaches to uterine wall, forming the placentaNourishment passes through the placenta
6Stages of Prenatal Development Embryonic Stage – 2 to 8 weeks following conceptionCells inside the placenta become embryoEmbryo – developing human organism – 2 weeks after fertilization to 2 monthsDuring this period, cells begin to differentiate – specialize in structure and function
7Stages of Prenatal Development Fetal Stage – 2 months to BirthFetus – developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth6 months – organs are formed and functional, fetus is responsive to soundVideo - early development (2:55)
9Nature v. Nurture and Prenatal Dev. Teratogens – harmful agents (such as chemicals and viruses) that can reach the embryo or fetus as it develops and cause harm.8 to 16 weeks is the CRITICAL PERIOD for brain development. If brain development does not occur properly then irreparable damage will be doneVideo- Teratogens 4:30Heroin addicts have children that are born addicted to heroinViruses such as AIDS can be passed from mother to childAlcohol enters the fetus via the bloodstream and could cause Fetal Alcohol SyndromeFAS – results from heavy drinking by the mother during pregnancy, especially within the first 12 weeks. Physical and psychological problems may develop due to FAS (short stature, flattened nose, short eye openings, mental retardations, hyperactivity)Video- Fetal Alcohol Syndrome 0:00 skip to 4:30
10Nature v. Nurture and Prenatal Dev. Genetic ProblemsBesides teratogens, the fetus can also be affect by certain genetic factorsEx. Downs Syndrome – Chromosomal abnormality – extra 21st chromosome. Characterized by abnormal physical traits (folding of skin around the eye, wide tongue, flattened facial features, and stunted growth) and mental retardation.
11Infancy Development We are born with specific reflexes Rooting Reflex – a baby’s tendency, when touched on the cheek, to open the mouth and search for foodSucking Reflex – when an object is placed in the baby’s mouth, the baby will suckMoro Reflex – baby flings limbs and then retracts when startledGrasping Reflex – if an object is placed in the palm or foot pad the baby will try to grasp the objectBabinski Reflex – when the foot is stroked, a baby will curl its toes.Stepping Reflex – baby will move one foot after another, making a stepping motion.Video- Primary Reflexes
12Habituation – decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation Infant will lose interest in a stimulus with repeated exposureEx. If you watch scary movies a lot you may not feel afraid when viewing them because you’ve been habituated to scary movies.Video – example of habituationVideo- Habituation 2:45
13Sensory DevelopmentBabies prefer to look at faces or face-like objectsFaces – recognizes mothers face by 3 monthsHearing –Hearing develops before birthAt 1 month, an infant can recognize the mothers voiceVideo- Recognizing Mother's voiceSeeing – born almost legally blind but babies can see inches in front of themTouch – infant shows a number of reflexes at birthSmell and Taste – At six weeks, infant can smell the difference between mother and stranger
14Memory DevelopmentQ What is your earliest memory (not including pictures you’ve seen)Because we lack neural connections, many of our early memories do not existAverage earliest memory – 3.5 years oldAt the age of 4, we begin organizing our memories differently
15Motor DevelopmentMaturation – biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior. Maturation is relatively uninfluenced by experienceProcess can be faster or slower depending on the environmentBabies roll over before they sit up, sit up before they crawl, and crawl before they walk. (Blind children do these things as well) – Nature or Nurture?Genetics – twins begin sitting up and walking on nearly the same day.
16At what age can a child do the following? 1. Laugh2. Pedal a tricycle3. Sit without support4. Feel ashamed5. Walk unassisted6. Stand on one foot for 10 seconds7. Recognize and smile at the mother and father8. Kick a ball forward9. Make two word sentences10. Think about things not seen
17Developmental Norms – avg Developmental Norms – avg. age at which children perform various skills/behaviors.Laugh monthsPedal a tricycle mthsSit without support mths.Feel ashamed mthsWalk unassisted mthsStand on one foot for 10 seconds 4.5 yrs.Recognize and smile at the mother and father 4-5 monthsKick a ball forward mthsMake two word sentences 24 mthsThink about things not seen mths