2Prenatal and Childhood Development Module 11Prenatal and Childhood Development
3Module Overview The Beginnings of Life Physical Development in Infancy and ChildhoodCognitive Development in Infancy and ChildhoodSocial Development in Infancy and ChildhoodThree Key Developmental IssuesClick on the any of the above hyperlinks to go to that section in the presentation.
4The Beginnings of Life: Prenatal Development Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development
5Prenatal Development Prenatal defined as “before birth” Prenatal stage begins at conception and ends with the birth of the child.
6Zygote A fertilized egg. The first two weeks are a period of rapid cell division.Cells start to differentiate and specializeAround the tenth day, the zygote attaches to the uterine wallAt the end of 14 days the zygote becomes an embryo
7Genes The biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes. Direct the process of differentiation
9EmbryoA developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization until the end of the eighth week.Most of the major organs are formed during this time.At the end of the eight week the fetal period begins.
10FetusA developing human organism from nine weeks after conception to birth.
11PlacentaA cushion of cells in the mother by which the fetus receives oxygen and nutritionActs as a filter to screen out substances that could harm the fetus
13TeratogensSubstances that cross the placental barrier and prevent the fetus from developing normally.Includes: radiation, toxic chemicals, viruses, drugs, alcohol, nicotine, etc.The Mind: Teratogens and their effectson the developing Brain and Mind
26Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development
27Developmental Psychology A subfield of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social changes throughout the life span.More than just child development
28Jean Piaget (pee-ah-ZHAY) Pioneer in the study of developmental psychology who introduced a stage theory of cognitive development that led to a better understanding of children’s thought processes.Proposed a theory consisting of four stages of cognitive development
29CognitionAll the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, and remembering.Children think differently than adults do
30SchemasConcepts or mental frameworks that people use to organize and interpret information.Sometimes called schemesA person’s “picture of the world”
31AssimilationInterpreting a new experience within the context of existing schemas.The new experience is similar to other previous experiences
32Accommodation Adapting current schemas to incorporate new information. The new experience is so novel the person’s schemata must be changed to accommodate it
36Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood: Sensorimotor Stage Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development
37Sensorimotor Stage In Piaget’s theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age)during which infants learn about the world through sensory impressions and motor activities.Child learns object permanence
38Object PermanenceThe awareness that things continue to exist even when you cannot see or hear them.“Out of sight, out of mind”
40Object Permanence Study One month old babies allowed to suck on two pacifiersInfants later shown the pacifiers looked primarily at the one they were given earlier.
41Object Permanence Study Five month olds reactions to a numerically impossible outcome are studied.
42Object Permanence Study Step One: Objects are placed in a case.
43Object Permanence Study Step Two: A screen come up
44Object Permanence Study Step Three: One object is removed in front of child.
45Object Permanence Study Step Four A: Possible outcome: Screen drops, revealing one object.
46Object Permanence Study Step Four B: Impossible outcome: Screen drops, revealing two objects.
47Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood: Preoperational Stage Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development
48Preoperational Stage In Piaget’s theory, the stage (from about age 2 to age 6 or 7 years of age)during which a child learns to use languagebut cannot yet think logically.
49EgocentrismIn Piaget’s theory, the inability of the preoperational child to take another person’s point of view orto understand that symbols can represent other objects
50Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood: Concrete Operational StageModule 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development
51Concrete Operational Stage In Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development(from about age 6 to 11 years of age)during which children gain the mental skills that let them think logically about concrete events.Learn conservation
52ConservationThe principle (which Piaget believe to be a part of concrete operational reasoning)that properties such as mass, volume and number remain the samedespite changes in the forms of objects.Show Piaget's Conservation-of-Liquid Task from Video Tool Kit CD
57Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood: Formal Operational StageModule 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development
58Formal Operational Stage In Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development(beginning about age 12)during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts and form strategies about things they may not have experienced.Can solve hypothetical problems (What if…. problems)
59Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood: Assessing Piaget Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development
65Social Development in Infancy and Childhood: Attachment Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development
66AttachmentThe emotional tie with another person shown by seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation.Body contact, familiarity, and responsiveness all contribute to attachment.
67Harry HarlowDid research with infant monkeys on how body contact relates to attachmentThe monkeys had to chose between a cloth mother or a wire mother that provided food.
68Harry HarlowThe monkeys spent most of their time by the cloth mother.
69Harry Harlow’s Studies on Dependency in Monkeys (Digital Media Archive CD#1)
72Familiarity Sense of contentment with that which is already known Infants are familiar with their parents and caregivers.
73Konrad LorenzResearcher who focused on critical attachment periods in baby birds,a concept he called imprinting.Goslings are imprinted to follow the first large moving object they see.
74ImprintingThe process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period early in life.
75Critical PeriodThe optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain experiences produces proper development.
76ResponsivenessResponsive parents are aware of what their children are doing.Unresponsive parents ignore their children--helping only when they want to.
77Social Development in Infancy and Childhood: Effects of Attachment Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development
78Securely or Insecurely Attached Securely attached – children will explore their environment when primary caregiver is presentInsecurely attached – children will appear distressed and cry when caregiver leaves. Will cling to them when they return
79Effects of Attachment Secure attachment predicts social competence. Deprivation of attachment is linked to negative outcome.A responsive environment helps most infants recover from attachment disruption.
81Social Development in Infancy and Childhood: Parenting Patterns Module 11: Prenatal and Childhood Development
82Parental Patterns Baumrind’s three main parenting styles Authoritarian parentingPermissive parentingAuthoritative parenting
83Authoritarian Parenting A style of parenting marked by imposing rules and expecting obedienceLow in warmthDiscipline is strict and sometimes physical.Communication high from parent to child and low from child to parentMaturity expectations are high.
84Permissive ParentingA style of parenting marked by submitting to children’s desires, making few demands, and using little punishmentHigh in warmth but rarely disciplineCommunication is low from parent to child but high from child to parent.Expectations of maturity are low.
85Authoritative Parenting A style of parenting marked by making demands on the child, being responsive, setting and enforcing rules, and discussing the reason behind the rules.High in warmth with moderate disciplineHigh in communication and negotiatingMaturity expectations are moderate.