Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Infancy: Social and Emotional Development"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 7 Infancy: Social and Emotional Development
2 Infancy: Social and Emotional Development: Truth or Fiction? Infants who are securely attached to their mothers do not like to stray from them.You can estimate how strongly infants are attached to their fathers if you know how many diapers per week the father changes.
3 Infancy: Social and Emotional Development: Truth or Fiction? Child abusers have frequently been the victims of child abuse themselves.Autistic children may respond to people as if they were pieces of furniture.
4 Infancy: Social and Emotional Development: Truth or Fiction? Children placed in day care are more aggressive than children who are cared for in the home.Fear of strangers is abnormal among infants.
5 Infancy: Social and Emotional Development: Truth or Fiction? All children are “born” with the same temperament. Treatment by caregivers determines whether they are difficult or easy-going.Girls prefer dolls and toy animals, and boys prefer trucks and sports equipment only after they have become aware of the gender roles assigned to them by society.
7 What is Meant by Attachment? Enduring emotional tie between one animal/person and another specific individualSeparation anxietyExperienced by infant when contact can not be maintained with caregiverAttachment is assessed by Strange Situation
8 Patterns of Attachment? Secure attachmentMildly protest mother’s departure, seek interaction upon her return and are easily comforted by herAvoidant attachmentLeast distressed by mothers’ departure, ignore mother upon her returnAmbivalent/resistant attachmentShow severe distress when mother leaves and ambivalence upon her return, clinging and pushing away their motherDisorganized/disoriented attachmentDazed, confused or disoriented
9 Developing in a World of Diversity Cross-Cultural Patterns of Attachment
10 Is it Better for an Infant to be Securely Attached to it’s Caregiver? Securely attached infants and toddlersHappier, more sociable, more cooperativeUse mother as secure base for explorationHave longer attention spans, are less impulsive and better problem solversAt 5 and 6, are better liked, more competent, less aggressive and have fewer behavioral problems
11 What are the Roles of the Parents in the Formation of Bonds of Attachment? High-quality care contributes to securitySiblings develop similar attachment relationships with their motherInfant’s temperament and caregivers’ behavior both contribute to attachmentWhat determines an infants’ attachment to their father?Quality of the time the father spends with the babyAmount of affectionate interaction between father and infant
12 Stability of Attachment? When caregiving remains constant – attachment persistsWhen caregiving changes – attachment can changeEarly attachment patterns tend to endure even into adulthood
13 What did Ainsworth Learn about Stages of Attachment? Three phases of attachmentInitial-preattachment phaseBirth to 3 months; indiscriminate affectionAttachment-in-the-making phase3 to 6 months; preference for familiar figuresClear-cut-attachment phaseBegins at 6 months; intensified dependence on primary caregiverMost children form more than one attachment
14 Figure 7.2 The Development of Attachment Figure 7.2 The Development of Attachment. During the first 6 months, infants tend to show indiscriminate attachment. Indiscriminate attachment then wanes while specific attachments grow intense and remain at high levels. Fear of strangers develops a month or so after the intensity of specific attachments begins to blossom.Figure 7.2 The Development of Attachment
15 How do Different Theorists Emphasize Nature or Nurture in their Explanation of the Development of Attachment?Cognitive View of AttachmentInfant must develop object permanence prior to forming attachmentBehavioral View of AttachmentInfants become conditioned to caregiversPsychoanalytic Views of AttachmentCaregiver becomes a love objectHarlows’ View of AttachmentContent comfort is key to attachment
16 How do Different Theorists Emphasize Nature or Nurture in their Explanation of the Development of Attachment?Ethological View of AttachmentAttachment is an inborn fixed action pattern (FAP) which occurs during a critical period in response to releasing stimulus.In humans, baby’s smile in response to human voice or face2-3-month emergence of social smileIn non-humans, FAP occurs during critical period: imprinting
17 Hormones and Attachment: Of Mice and Men – and Women and Infants A Closer LookHormones and Attachment: Of Mice and Men – and Women and Infants
19 What are the Findings of the Harlows’ Studies on the Effects of Social Deprivation with Monkeys? Monkeys reared in isolationLater avoided contact with other monkeysDid not attempt to fend off attacks by other monkeysFemales who later bore children ignored or abused themAttempts to overcome effects of deprivationDeprived monkeys are placed with younger monkeysEventually expand contacts with other monkeysChildren socially withdrawn and placed with younger playmates make gains in social and emotional development
20 What do we Know about the Effects of Social Deprivation on Humans? Institutionalized children with little social stimulation encounter developmental problemsMay become withdrawn and depressedInfants may require sensory stimulation and social interference more than a specific relationship with a primary caregiverInfants have much capacity to recover from deprivation
21 Figure 7.7 The Development of Adopted Children Separated from Temporary Foster Parents. The older the child at time of separation, the more likely it is that behavioral disturbances will occur.Figure 7.7 The Development of Adopted Children Separated from Temporary Foster Parents
22 What is the Incidence of Child Abuse and Neglect? Nearly 3 million American children are neglected or abused each year1 in 6 experiences serious injuryMore than 150,000 are sexually abusedResearchers believe % of abuse and neglect go unreportedAbused children show high incidence of personal, social problems, and psychological disordersLess securely attached to parentsLess intimate with peersMore aggressive, angry and noncompliant with other children
23 A Closer LookHow Child Abuse May Set the Stage for Psychological Disorders in Adulthood
24 Causes of Child Abuse Situational stress History of child abuse Lack of coping and problem solving skillsDeficiency in child-rearing skillsSubstance abuse
25 Why Does Child Abuse Run in Families? Parents are role models, even abusive onesExposure to violence may lead to violence as a normRationalization of hurting children
26 Dealing with Child Abuse Reporting child abuseMany states require suspicions to be reportedPreventing child abuseStrengthening parenting skillsHome visits to high risk groupsProviding information, ie. child abuse hotline
27 What to Do if You Think a Child Has Been the Victim of Sexual Abuse A Closer LookWhat to Do if You Think a Child Has Been the Victim of Sexual Abuse
29 What are Autism Spectrum Disorders? Characterized by impairment in communication skills, social interactions, and repetitive stereotyped behaviorBecomes evident by age 3Forms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs)Asperger’s disorder – social deficits and stereotyped behaviorRett’s disorder – physical, behavioral, motor and cognitive abnormalities, begins a few months after normal developmentChildhood disintegrative disorder – loss of previously acquired skills, begins 2 years after normal development
30 What is Autism?Children with autism do not show interest in social interaction, may avoid eye contact and have weak or absent attachmentFeatures of autismalonenesscommunication problemsintolerance of changestereotypical behaviorsmutismecholaliaself-mutilation
31 What are the Origins of Autism Spectrum Disorder? Biological factorsEvidenced by genetic studiesFocus on neurological involvementAbnormal brain wave patterns or seizuresStructural differences in brainsFewer receptors for neurotransmitters
32 What Can be Done to Help Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders? Behavior modificationDrug therapies are under studyUse of SSRIs and major tranquilizers
34 Does Day Care Affect Children’s Bonds of Attachment Does Day Care Affect Children’s Bonds of Attachment? Does it Affect Social and Cognitive Development?No highly likelihood of insecure attachment for infants in day careSocial development of children in day careMore independent, self confident, outgoing, affectionate and more cooperativeCognitive development of children in quality day careOutperform children who remain at homeChildren in day care show more aggressionAggression may indicate independence
35 Finding Day Care You (and Your Children) Can Live With A Closer LookFinding Day Care You(and Your Children) Can Live With
37 What are Emotions?A state of feeling that has physiological, situational, and cognitive componentsPhysiological – body reactionSituational – environmental presenceCognitive – ideas and thoughts
38 How do Emotions Develop? Bridges’ and Stroufe’s Theory of EmotionBorn with one emotion – diffused excitementOther emotions differentiate over timeCognitive development is necessary for differentiation of emotionsIzard’s Theory of EmotionBorn with several emotional statesAppearance of those emotions is linked to cognitive development and social experiences
39 Figure 7.8 Illustration from Izard’s Maximally Discriminative Facial Movement Scoring System. What emotion do you think is being experienced by each of these infants?Figure 7.8 Illustrations from Izard’s Maximally Discriminative Facial Movement Scoring System
40 Is Fear of Strangers Normal? Fear of strangers – stranger anxiety is normalAppears at about 6 to 9 monthsDevelopment of stranger anxiety4 – 5 months – smile more at mother than strangersOlder infants – show distressFear peaks at 9 to 12 months and decline in 2nd year, orSecond peak at 18 to 24 months and decline in 3rd yearShow less distress when mothers are presentCloser to stranger, more distressed
41 When Does Social Referencing Develop? Social referencing – seeking another’s perception of a situation to help form our own viewDevelopment of social referencingAppears as early as 6 monthsUse caregiver’s facial expression and tone of voice
42 What is Emotional Regulation? Refers to ways young children control their own emotionsCaregivers help infants learn to regulate emotionsInterplay between caregiver and infantSecure mothers = children more able to positively regulate emotions
44 What is Self-Concept? The sense of self Development of self-concept Emerges gradually during infancyDevelopment of self-conceptMirror technique – 18 months - infants demonstrate self concept30 months – can point to their own picturePresence of self-awareness allowsSharing and cooperation“Self-conscious” emotions
45 Psychoanalytic Views of Self-Concept Separation-individuationNecessary for self-concept (5 months through 3 years)Erikson – task is to develop autonomyFreud - task is to develop independence and control but focuses on child’s bodily functionsDemonstration of autonomy and independenceNoncompliance with parental requests
46 What is Meant by the Temperament of a Child? Characteristic way of relating and adapting to the world; present very early in lifeBasic core of personalityHas a genetic componentResearch establishes characteristics of temperament
47 What Types of Temperament do we Find among Children? Thomas and Chess (1989) three types of temperamentEasy (40% of sample)regular schedule, adapts easily, generally cheerfulDifficult (10% of sample)irregular schedule, slow at accept and adapt to change, responds negativelySlow to warm up (15% of sample)somewhat irregular schedule, respond negatively to new experiences, but adapt slowly after repeated exposure
48 Goodness of Fit Good fit Poor fit Parents modify expectations, attitudes and behaviors to assist child In developing a more positive temperamentPoor fitDiscrepancy between child’s behavior style and parent’s expectations
49 How do Girls and Boys Differ in their Social, Emotional and Other Behaviors? Infant behaviorsGirls sit, crawl and walk earlier than boysBy 12 to 18 months – difference in toy preferencegirls prefer dolls, doll furniture, dishes and toy animalsboys prefer transportation toys, tools, and sports equipmentAdult behaviorsAdults respond differently to boys and girlsParent behaviorsMore rough and tumble play with sonsTalk to and smile at daughters moreFavorable reactions when child plays with “appropriate” gender toys
50 Lessons in Observation: Gender Are sex differences present at birth or learned? Support your answer with research. What evidence can you find in the video to support the idea that sex differences are present at birth or learned.How do the adults in the video describe their children in terms of gender? How do parental expectations contribute to children’s ideas of gender-appropriate roles and activities?
51 Lessons in Observation: Gender In what ways does the physical environment reinforce gender role stereotypes and gender-typed behavior? Give examples from the video.At what age do children begin to engage in gender-specific play. Describe the play interactions illustrated on the video. Are the children engaged in gender specific play activities? Do they learn to choose these play activities, or are they biologically based? Why?