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Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Chapter 7 Infancy: Social and Emotional Development.

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Presentation on theme: "Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Chapter 7 Infancy: Social and Emotional Development."— Presentation transcript:

1 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Chapter 7 Infancy: Social and Emotional Development

2 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Infants who are securely attached to their mothers do not like to stray from them. You can estimate how strongly infants are attached to their fathers if you know how many diapers per week the father changes. Infancy: Social and Emotional Development: Truth or Fiction?

3 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Child abusers have frequently been the victims of child abuse themselves. Autistic children may respond to people as if they were pieces of furniture. Infancy: Social and Emotional Development: Truth or Fiction?

4 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Children placed in day care are more aggressive than children who are cared for in the home. Fear of strangers is abnormal among infants. Infancy: Social and Emotional Development: Truth or Fiction?

5 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 All children are “born” with the same temperament. Treatment by caregivers determines whether they are difficult or easy-going. Girls prefer dolls and toy animals, and boys prefer trucks and sports equipment only after they have become aware of the gender roles assigned to them by society. Infancy: Social and Emotional Development: Truth or Fiction?

6 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Attachment Bonds That Endure

7 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Enduring emotional tie between one animal/person and another specific individual Separation anxiety –Experienced by infant when contact can not be maintained with caregiver Attachment is assessed by Strange Situation What is Meant by Attachment?

8 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Secure attachment –Mildly protest mother’s departure, seek interaction upon her return and are easily comforted by her Avoidant attachment –Least distressed by mothers’ departure, ignore mother upon her return Ambivalent/resistant attachment –Show severe distress when mother leaves and ambivalence upon her return, clinging and pushing away their mother Disorganized/disoriented attachment –Dazed, confused or disoriented Patterns of Attachment?

9 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Developing in a World of Diversity Cross-Cultural Patterns of Attachment

10 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Securely attached infants and toddlers –Happier, more sociable, more cooperative –Use mother as secure base for exploration –Have longer attention spans, are less impulsive and better problem solvers –At 5 and 6, are better liked, more competent, less aggressive and have fewer behavioral problems Is it Better for an Infant to be Securely Attached to it’s Caregiver?

11 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 High-quality care contributes to security Siblings develop similar attachment relationships with their mother Infant’s temperament and caregivers’ behavior both contribute to attachment What determines an infants’ attachment to their father? –Quality of the time the father spends with the baby –Amount of affectionate interaction between father and infant What are the Roles of the Parents in the Formation of Bonds of Attachment?

12 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 When caregiving remains constant – attachment persists When caregiving changes – attachment can change Early attachment patterns tend to endure even into adulthood Stability of Attachment?

13 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Three phases of attachment –Initial-preattachment phase Birth to 3 months; indiscriminate affection –Attachment-in-the-making phase 3 to 6 months; preference for familiar figures –Clear-cut-attachment phase Begins at 6 months; intensified dependence on primary caregiver Most children form more than one attachment What did Ainsworth Learn about Stages of Attachment?

14 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Figure 7.2 The Development of Attachment

15 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Cognitive View of Attachment –Infant must develop object permanence prior to forming attachment Behavioral View of Attachment –Infants become conditioned to caregivers Psychoanalytic Views of Attachment –Caregiver becomes a love object Harlows’ View of Attachment –Content comfort is key to attachment How do Different Theorists Emphasize Nature or Nurture in their Explanation of the Development of Attachment?

16 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Ethological View of Attachment –Attachment is an inborn fixed action pattern (FAP) which occurs during a critical period in response to releasing stimulus. In humans, baby’s smile in response to human voice or face –2-3-month emergence of social smile In non-humans, FAP occurs during critical period: imprinting How do Different Theorists Emphasize Nature or Nurture in their Explanation of the Development of Attachment?

17 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 A Closer Look Hormones and Attachment: Of Mice and Men – and Women and Infants

18 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 When Attachment Fails

19 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Monkeys reared in isolation –Later avoided contact with other monkeys –Did not attempt to fend off attacks by other monkeys –Females who later bore children ignored or abused them Attempts to overcome effects of deprivation –Deprived monkeys are placed with younger monkeys –Eventually expand contacts with other monkeys –Children socially withdrawn and placed with younger playmates make gains in social and emotional development What are the Findings of the Harlows’ Studies on the Effects of Social Deprivation with Monkeys?

20 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Institutionalized children with little social stimulation encounter developmental problems –May become withdrawn and depressed Infants may require sensory stimulation and social interference more than a specific relationship with a primary caregiver Infants have much capacity to recover from deprivation What do we Know about the Effects of Social Deprivation on Humans?

21 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Figure 7.7 The Development of Adopted Children Separated from Temporary Foster Parents

22 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Nearly 3 million American children are neglected or abused each year –1 in 6 experiences serious injury –More than 150,000 are sexually abused Researchers believe % of abuse and neglect go unreported Abused children show high incidence of personal, social problems, and psychological disorders –Less securely attached to parents –Less intimate with peers –More aggressive, angry and noncompliant with other children What is the Incidence of Child Abuse and Neglect?

23 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 A Closer Look How Child Abuse May Set the Stage for Psychological Disorders in Adulthood

24 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Situational stress History of child abuse Lack of coping and problem solving skills Deficiency in child-rearing skills Substance abuse Causes of Child Abuse

25 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Parents are role models, even abusive ones Exposure to violence may lead to violence as a norm Rationalization of hurting children Why Does Child Abuse Run in Families?

26 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Reporting child abuse –Many states require suspicions to be reported Preventing child abuse –Strengthening parenting skills –Home visits to high risk groups –Providing information, ie. child abuse hotline Dealing with Child Abuse

27 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 A Closer Look What to Do if You Think a Child Has Been the Victim of Sexual Abuse

28 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Autism Spectrum Disorders

29 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Characterized by impairment in communication skills, social interactions, and repetitive stereotyped behavior –Becomes evident by age 3 Forms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) –Asperger’s disorder – social deficits and stereotyped behavior –Rett’s disorder – physical, behavioral, motor and cognitive abnormalities, begins a few months after normal development –Childhood disintegrative disorder – loss of previously acquired skills, begins 2 years after normal development What are Autism Spectrum Disorders?

30 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Children with autism do not show interest in social interaction, may avoid eye contact and have weak or absent attachment Features of autism –aloneness –communication problems –intolerance of change –stereotypical behaviors –mutism –echolalia –self-mutilation What is Autism?

31 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Biological factors –Evidenced by genetic studies –Focus on neurological involvement Abnormal brain wave patterns or seizures Structural differences in brains Fewer receptors for neurotransmitters What are the Origins of Autism Spectrum Disorder?

32 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Behavior modification Drug therapies are under study –Use of SSRIs and major tranquilizers What Can be Done to Help Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders?

33 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Day Care

34 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 No highly likelihood of insecure attachment for infants in day care Social development of children in day care –More independent, self confident, outgoing, affectionate and more cooperative Cognitive development of children in quality day care –Outperform children who remain at home Children in day care show more aggression –Aggression may indicate independence Does Day Care Affect Children’s Bonds of Attachment? Does it Affect Social and Cognitive Development?

35 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 A Closer Look Finding Day Care You (and Your Children) Can Live With

36 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Emotional Development

37 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 A state of feeling that has physiological, situational, and cognitive components –Physiological – body reaction –Situational – environmental presence –Cognitive – ideas and thoughts What are Emotions?

38 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Bridges’ and Stroufe’s Theory of Emotion –Born with one emotion – diffused excitement –Other emotions differentiate over time –Cognitive development is necessary for differentiation of emotions Izard’s Theory of Emotion –Born with several emotional states –Appearance of those emotions is linked to cognitive development and social experiences How do Emotions Develop?

39 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Figure 7.8 Illustrations from Izard’s Maximally Discriminative Facial Movement Scoring System

40 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Fear of strangers – stranger anxiety is normal –Appears at about 6 to 9 months Development of stranger anxiety –4 – 5 months – smile more at mother than strangers –Older infants – show distress –Fear peaks at 9 to 12 months and decline in 2 nd year, or –Second peak at 18 to 24 months and decline in 3 rd year Show less distress when mothers are present Closer to stranger, more distressed Is Fear of Strangers Normal?

41 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Social referencing – seeking another’s perception of a situation to help form our own view Development of social referencing –Appears as early as 6 months –Use caregiver’s facial expression and tone of voice When Does Social Referencing Develop?

42 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Refers to ways young children control their own emotions Caregivers help infants learn to regulate emotions –Interplay between caregiver and infant –Secure mothers = children more able to positively regulate emotions What is Emotional Regulation?

43 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Personality Development

44 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 The sense of self –Emerges gradually during infancy Development of self-concept –Mirror technique – 18 months - infants demonstrate self concept –30 months – can point to their own picture Presence of self-awareness allows –Sharing and cooperation –“Self-conscious” emotions What is Self-Concept?

45 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Separation-individuation –Necessary for self-concept (5 months through 3 years) –Erikson – task is to develop autonomy –Freud - task is to develop independence and control but focuses on child’s bodily functions Demonstration of autonomy and independence –Noncompliance with parental requests Psychoanalytic Views of Self-Concept

46 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Characteristic way of relating and adapting to the world; present very early in life –Basic core of personality –Has a genetic component Research establishes characteristics of temperament What is Meant by the Temperament of a Child?

47 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Thomas and Chess (1989) three types of temperament –Easy (40% of sample) regular schedule, adapts easily, generally cheerful –Difficult (10% of sample) irregular schedule, slow at accept and adapt to change, responds negatively –Slow to warm up (15% of sample) somewhat irregular schedule, respond negatively to new experiences, but adapt slowly after repeated exposure What Types of Temperament do we Find among Children?

48 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Good fit –Parents modify expectations, attitudes and behaviors to assist child In developing a more positive temperament Poor fit –Discrepancy between child’s behavior style and parent’s expectations Goodness of Fit

49 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Infant behaviors –Girls sit, crawl and walk earlier than boys –By 12 to 18 months – difference in toy preference girls prefer dolls, doll furniture, dishes and toy animals boys prefer transportation toys, tools, and sports equipment Adult behaviors –Adults respond differently to boys and girls Parent behaviors –More rough and tumble play with sons –Talk to and smile at daughters more –Favorable reactions when child plays with “appropriate” gender toys How do Girls and Boys Differ in their Social, Emotional and Other Behaviors?

50 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 Are sex differences present at birth or learned? Support your answer with research. What evidence can you find in the video to support the idea that sex differences are present at birth or learned. How do the adults in the video describe their children in terms of gender? How do parental expectations contribute to children’s ideas of gender-appropriate roles and activities? Lessons in Observation: Gender

51 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 7 In what ways does the physical environment reinforce gender role stereotypes and gender-typed behavior? Give examples from the video. At what age do children begin to engage in gender-specific play. Describe the play interactions illustrated on the video. Are the children engaged in gender specific play activities? Do they learn to choose these play activities, or are they biologically based? Why? Lessons in Observation: Gender


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