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Chapter 7 Infancy: Social and Emotional Development

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Infancy: Social and Emotional Development"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 7 Infancy: Social and Emotional Development

2 Infancy: Social and Emotional Development: Truth or Fiction?
Infants who are securely attached to their mothers do not like to stray from them. You can estimate how strongly infants are attached to their fathers if you know how many diapers per week the father changes.

3 Infancy: Social and Emotional Development: Truth or Fiction?
Child abusers have frequently been the victims of child abuse themselves. Autistic children may respond to people as if they were pieces of furniture.

4 Infancy: Social and Emotional Development: Truth or Fiction?
Children placed in day care are more aggressive than children who are cared for in the home. Fear of strangers is abnormal among infants.

5 Infancy: Social and Emotional Development: Truth or Fiction?
All children are “born” with the same temperament. Treatment by caregivers determines whether they are difficult or easy-going. Girls prefer dolls and toy animals, and boys prefer trucks and sports equipment only after they have become aware of the gender roles assigned to them by society.

6 Attachment Bonds That Endure

7 What is Meant by Attachment?
Enduring emotional tie between one animal/person and another specific individual Separation anxiety Experienced by infant when contact can not be maintained with caregiver Attachment is assessed by Strange Situation

8 Patterns of Attachment?
Secure attachment Mildly protest mother’s departure, seek interaction upon her return and are easily comforted by her Avoidant attachment Least distressed by mothers’ departure, ignore mother upon her return Ambivalent/resistant attachment Show severe distress when mother leaves and ambivalence upon her return, clinging and pushing away their mother Disorganized/disoriented attachment Dazed, confused or disoriented

9 Developing in a World of Diversity
Cross-Cultural Patterns of Attachment

10 Is it Better for an Infant to be Securely Attached to it’s Caregiver?
Securely attached infants and toddlers Happier, more sociable, more cooperative Use mother as secure base for exploration Have longer attention spans, are less impulsive and better problem solvers At 5 and 6, are better liked, more competent, less aggressive and have fewer behavioral problems

11 What are the Roles of the Parents in the Formation of Bonds of Attachment?
High-quality care contributes to security Siblings develop similar attachment relationships with their mother Infant’s temperament and caregivers’ behavior both contribute to attachment What determines an infants’ attachment to their father? Quality of the time the father spends with the baby Amount of affectionate interaction between father and infant

12 Stability of Attachment?
When caregiving remains constant – attachment persists When caregiving changes – attachment can change Early attachment patterns tend to endure even into adulthood

13 What did Ainsworth Learn about Stages of Attachment?
Three phases of attachment Initial-preattachment phase Birth to 3 months; indiscriminate affection Attachment-in-the-making phase 3 to 6 months; preference for familiar figures Clear-cut-attachment phase Begins at 6 months; intensified dependence on primary caregiver Most children form more than one attachment

14 Figure 7.2 The Development of Attachment
Figure 7.2 The Development of Attachment. During the first 6 months, infants tend to show indiscriminate attachment. Indiscriminate attachment then wanes while specific attachments grow intense and remain at high levels. Fear of strangers develops a month or so after the intensity of specific attachments begins to blossom. Figure 7.2 The Development of Attachment

15 How do Different Theorists Emphasize Nature or Nurture in their Explanation of the Development of Attachment? Cognitive View of Attachment Infant must develop object permanence prior to forming attachment Behavioral View of Attachment Infants become conditioned to caregivers Psychoanalytic Views of Attachment Caregiver becomes a love object Harlows’ View of Attachment Content comfort is key to attachment

16 How do Different Theorists Emphasize Nature or Nurture in their Explanation of the Development of Attachment? Ethological View of Attachment Attachment is an inborn fixed action pattern (FAP) which occurs during a critical period in response to releasing stimulus. In humans, baby’s smile in response to human voice or face 2-3-month emergence of social smile In non-humans, FAP occurs during critical period: imprinting

17 Hormones and Attachment: Of Mice and Men – and Women and Infants
A Closer Look Hormones and Attachment: Of Mice and Men – and Women and Infants

18 When Attachment Fails

19 What are the Findings of the Harlows’ Studies on the Effects of Social Deprivation with Monkeys?
Monkeys reared in isolation Later avoided contact with other monkeys Did not attempt to fend off attacks by other monkeys Females who later bore children ignored or abused them Attempts to overcome effects of deprivation Deprived monkeys are placed with younger monkeys Eventually expand contacts with other monkeys Children socially withdrawn and placed with younger playmates make gains in social and emotional development

20 What do we Know about the Effects of Social Deprivation on Humans?
Institutionalized children with little social stimulation encounter developmental problems May become withdrawn and depressed Infants may require sensory stimulation and social interference more than a specific relationship with a primary caregiver Infants have much capacity to recover from deprivation

21 Figure 7.7 The Development of Adopted Children Separated from Temporary Foster Parents. The older the child at time of separation, the more likely it is that behavioral disturbances will occur. Figure 7.7 The Development of Adopted Children Separated from Temporary Foster Parents

22 What is the Incidence of Child Abuse and Neglect?
Nearly 3 million American children are neglected or abused each year 1 in 6 experiences serious injury More than 150,000 are sexually abused Researchers believe % of abuse and neglect go unreported Abused children show high incidence of personal, social problems, and psychological disorders Less securely attached to parents Less intimate with peers More aggressive, angry and noncompliant with other children

23 A Closer Look How Child Abuse May Set the Stage for Psychological Disorders in Adulthood

24 Causes of Child Abuse Situational stress History of child abuse
Lack of coping and problem solving skills Deficiency in child-rearing skills Substance abuse

25 Why Does Child Abuse Run in Families?
Parents are role models, even abusive ones Exposure to violence may lead to violence as a norm Rationalization of hurting children

26 Dealing with Child Abuse
Reporting child abuse Many states require suspicions to be reported Preventing child abuse Strengthening parenting skills Home visits to high risk groups Providing information, ie. child abuse hotline

27 What to Do if You Think a Child Has Been the Victim of Sexual Abuse
A Closer Look What to Do if You Think a Child Has Been the Victim of Sexual Abuse

28 Autism Spectrum Disorders

29 What are Autism Spectrum Disorders?
Characterized by impairment in communication skills, social interactions, and repetitive stereotyped behavior Becomes evident by age 3 Forms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) Asperger’s disorder – social deficits and stereotyped behavior Rett’s disorder – physical, behavioral, motor and cognitive abnormalities, begins a few months after normal development Childhood disintegrative disorder – loss of previously acquired skills, begins 2 years after normal development

30 What is Autism? Children with autism do not show interest in social interaction, may avoid eye contact and have weak or absent attachment Features of autism aloneness communication problems intolerance of change stereotypical behaviors mutism echolalia self-mutilation

31 What are the Origins of Autism Spectrum Disorder?
Biological factors Evidenced by genetic studies Focus on neurological involvement Abnormal brain wave patterns or seizures Structural differences in brains Fewer receptors for neurotransmitters

32 What Can be Done to Help Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders?
Behavior modification Drug therapies are under study Use of SSRIs and major tranquilizers

33 Day Care

34 Does Day Care Affect Children’s Bonds of Attachment
Does Day Care Affect Children’s Bonds of Attachment? Does it Affect Social and Cognitive Development? No highly likelihood of insecure attachment for infants in day care Social development of children in day care More independent, self confident, outgoing, affectionate and more cooperative Cognitive development of children in quality day care Outperform children who remain at home Children in day care show more aggression Aggression may indicate independence

35 Finding Day Care You (and Your Children) Can Live With
A Closer Look Finding Day Care You (and Your Children) Can Live With

36 Emotional Development

37 What are Emotions? A state of feeling that has physiological, situational, and cognitive components Physiological – body reaction Situational – environmental presence Cognitive – ideas and thoughts

38 How do Emotions Develop?
Bridges’ and Stroufe’s Theory of Emotion Born with one emotion – diffused excitement Other emotions differentiate over time Cognitive development is necessary for differentiation of emotions Izard’s Theory of Emotion Born with several emotional states Appearance of those emotions is linked to cognitive development and social experiences

39 Figure 7.8 Illustration from Izard’s Maximally Discriminative Facial Movement Scoring System. What emotion do you think is being experienced by each of these infants? Figure 7.8 Illustrations from Izard’s Maximally Discriminative Facial Movement Scoring System

40 Is Fear of Strangers Normal?
Fear of strangers – stranger anxiety is normal Appears at about 6 to 9 months Development of stranger anxiety 4 – 5 months – smile more at mother than strangers Older infants – show distress Fear peaks at 9 to 12 months and decline in 2nd year, or Second peak at 18 to 24 months and decline in 3rd year Show less distress when mothers are present Closer to stranger, more distressed

41 When Does Social Referencing Develop?
Social referencing – seeking another’s perception of a situation to help form our own view Development of social referencing Appears as early as 6 months Use caregiver’s facial expression and tone of voice

42 What is Emotional Regulation?
Refers to ways young children control their own emotions Caregivers help infants learn to regulate emotions Interplay between caregiver and infant Secure mothers = children more able to positively regulate emotions

43 Personality Development

44 What is Self-Concept? The sense of self Development of self-concept
Emerges gradually during infancy Development of self-concept Mirror technique – 18 months - infants demonstrate self concept 30 months – can point to their own picture Presence of self-awareness allows Sharing and cooperation “Self-conscious” emotions

45 Psychoanalytic Views of Self-Concept
Separation-individuation Necessary for self-concept (5 months through 3 years) Erikson – task is to develop autonomy Freud - task is to develop independence and control but focuses on child’s bodily functions Demonstration of autonomy and independence Noncompliance with parental requests

46 What is Meant by the Temperament of a Child?
Characteristic way of relating and adapting to the world; present very early in life Basic core of personality Has a genetic component Research establishes characteristics of temperament

47 What Types of Temperament do we Find among Children?
Thomas and Chess (1989) three types of temperament Easy (40% of sample) regular schedule, adapts easily, generally cheerful Difficult (10% of sample) irregular schedule, slow at accept and adapt to change, responds negatively Slow to warm up (15% of sample) somewhat irregular schedule, respond negatively to new experiences, but adapt slowly after repeated exposure

48 Goodness of Fit Good fit Poor fit
Parents modify expectations, attitudes and behaviors to assist child In developing a more positive temperament Poor fit Discrepancy between child’s behavior style and parent’s expectations

49 How do Girls and Boys Differ in their Social, Emotional and Other Behaviors?
Infant behaviors Girls sit, crawl and walk earlier than boys By 12 to 18 months – difference in toy preference girls prefer dolls, doll furniture, dishes and toy animals boys prefer transportation toys, tools, and sports equipment Adult behaviors Adults respond differently to boys and girls Parent behaviors More rough and tumble play with sons Talk to and smile at daughters more Favorable reactions when child plays with “appropriate” gender toys

50 Lessons in Observation: Gender
Are sex differences present at birth or learned? Support your answer with research. What evidence can you find in the video to support the idea that sex differences are present at birth or learned. How do the adults in the video describe their children in terms of gender? How do parental expectations contribute to children’s ideas of gender-appropriate roles and activities?

51 Lessons in Observation: Gender
In what ways does the physical environment reinforce gender role stereotypes and gender-typed behavior? Give examples from the video. At what age do children begin to engage in gender-specific play. Describe the play interactions illustrated on the video. Are the children engaged in gender specific play activities? Do they learn to choose these play activities, or are they biologically based? Why?

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