Presentation on theme: "Lecture One Introduction What is grammar? The term of grammar can be understood as (1) the rules of the structures of a language (grammar in its narrow."— Presentation transcript:
What is grammar? The term of grammar can be understood as (1) the rules of the structures of a language (grammar in its narrow sense); (2) all the rules of a language, including phonetic, phonological, syntactic, semantic and pragmatic rules ， which is equivalent to linguistics (grammar in its broad sense); (3) the study of the rules of a language (equivalent to Chinese 语法学 ).
Two varieties of grammar A. grammar for a speaker to speak a language; B. grammar for people to speak about a language. GrammarA refers to the competence of the speaker of a language. Grammar B refers to the explicit theory constructed by the linguist and proposed as a description of the speaker’s competence. We are unconscious of GrammarA (linguistic rules) that enable us to speak, understand, and make judgments about sentences.
The role of grammar in language learning Grammar is the structual system of a language. meaning – grammar – pronunciation Syntax, morphology
Three types of Grammar B Descriptive grammar is the grammar describing language as it is. Prescriptive grammar is the grammar prescribing rather than describing the rules of grammar. Teaching grammar is used to learn another language or dialect.
Teaching grammar states explicitly the rules of the language, lists the words and their pronunciations and aids in leaning a new language. Although it might be prescriptive in the sense that they attempt to teach the students what is or is not a grammatical construction in the new language, their aim is different from grammars that attempt to change the rules or usage of a language already learned.
How does grammar come into being? Today’s grammar is yesterday’s discourse (Givon, an American linguist working at Oregon University). Grammar is emergent. a. I think…. b. be going to ---- gonna to (1)Bill is going to dance. (2) Bill is going to go to school. (3)Bill’s gonna go to school. (4 ) ﹖ Bill ‘s gonna school. be comin g
Grammaticalization the phenomena in which lexical items and constructions come in certain linguistic contexts to serve grammatical functions or grammatical items develop new grammatical functions. Can—could(past tense)---could (pure modal )
The aims of this course to find out grammatical rules to explore possibe motivations
Three topics dealt with in this course Sentence making Sentence expanding Sentence contracting
Sentence making The grammatical hierarchy of the English language e.g. Paul is one of the nicest school boys I know. Sentence Clause Phrase Word Morpheme
1. Free morpheme e.g. kind: kindness, unkind, kindly 2. Bound morpheme Inflectional affix e.g. -ing, -ed, -es Derivational affix e.g. unlucy, movement
Word Open-class words Noun, verb, adjective, adverb Closed-class words Preposition, pronoun, determiner, conjunction, auxiliary
Phrase The noun phrase (determiner) + (premodifier +) noun (+ postmodifier) e.g.I remember Alice. I remember that girl with the red hair. I remember a better story. I remember the best film that I have seen.
The verb phrase (Modifier +) main verb e.g. The ship sank. The ship was sinking.. They fully appreciated my problems. Finite verb phrase: indicated by a finite verb form that changes according to tense or subject Non-finite verb phrase e.g. We went there to see a film. Having seen the film, we had a discussion. Painted by a famous artist, the portrait is invaluable.
The adjective phrase (modifier+) adjective (+postmodifier) e.g. The weather was pleasant. The weather was too hot. The weather was too hot to be enjoyable.
The adverb phrase (modifier+) adverb (+ postmodifier) e.g. I spoke to him yesterday. I spoke to him quite often. I spoke to him as clearly as I could.
The prepositional phrase (modifier+) preposition +complementation e.g. I met her for lunch. I met her on Sunday morning.
clause Five clause elements: subject (S), verb (V), complement (C), and adverbial (A) Basic clause patterns SV: The baby is crying. SVC: He is innocent. SVA: They live in Los Angeles. SVO: She bought a skirt. SVOA: He put the coin in his mouth. SVOC: All of us believed him honest. SVOO: He gave her a rose.
Sentence Statement e.g. John is taller than any other student in the class. Command e.g. Keep your mouth shut. Question e.g. What’s your name? Exclamation e.g. What a fine day!
Sentence expanding 1. Simple sentence e.g. You throw a stone at the window. I’ll scream. 2. Compound sentence: coordination e.g. You throw a stone at the window and I’ll scream. 3. Complex sentence: subordination, main clause, subordinate clause e.g. If you throw a stone at the window, I’ll scream. 4. Cohesion and coherence in the text
A list of reference books for further reading Quirk, R. & S. Greenbaum (1973) A University Grammar of English, London: Longman Quirk, R. etal (1985) A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language, London and New York: Longman Halliday, M.A.K. (1985) An Introduction to Functional Grammar, London: Edward Arnold 张道真《实用英语语法》商务印书馆 章振邦《新编英语语法》上海外语教育出版社