Introduction Grammatical Hierarchy. Definition of GRAMMAR GRAMMAR: the structural system of a language. the branch of linguistics that deals with.
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Definition of GRAMMAR GRAMMAR: the structural system of a language. the branch of linguistics that deals with syntax and morphology (and sometimes also deals with semantics) Linguistics Grammar Syntax Morphology Semantics
Five Ranks The grammar of the English language is organized into five ranks:five ranks the SentenceSentence the ClauseClause the PhrasePhrase the WordWord the MorphemeMorpheme
Diagram of the five ranks: Each rank is composed of one or more than one grammatical unit of the immediate lower rank: Sentence Clause Phrase Word Morpheme
Example A full sentence can generally be segmented rank by rank down to its smallest constituents---the morphemes. These undergraduates are rapidly improving in their writing. SentenceClause Phrases Noun PhrasePrepositional PhraseVerb Phrase Words These undergraduates are rapidly improving in their writing undergraduates rapidly improvingwriting Morphemes These arein their
0.1 Morphemes 1.Definition: the minimum or smallest grammatical unit the smallest meaningful element of speech. 2.Classification: Two categories: 1) Free Morphemes 2) Bound Morphemes. *3) AllomorphsMorphemes Allomorphs 3. Diagram of MorphemeMorpheme
1) Free Morphemes 1. Definition: has a complete meaning can stand by itself as a Simple Word can sometimes act as a complete utterance in connected speech to form Compound Words Derivatives
2) Bound Morphemes are mostly affixes also meaningful, but the meaning is not complete in itself unless it is attached to some other forms cannot stand by itself: it only exists as an Inflectional Inflectional or Derivational Affix
Inflectional Affix -’s (genitive case) -s/-es (plural nouns) -s/-es (the third person singular verbs in simple present) -ed (past tense verbs) -ing, -ed (-ing participle, -ed participle form of verbs) -er, -est (comparative, superlative degree of adjectives/ adverbs)
0.2 Words is composed of one or more morpheme. can be classified in two ways: in terms of word-formationword-formation grammatical functiongrammatical function
In terms of Word-formation a) Simple WordSimple Word b) DerivativeDerivative c) Compound WordCompound Word
a) Simple Word: also called Morpheme Word (free morpheme) minor but has frequent appearance and strong derivational ability the main body of English vocabulary usually the small word at on down near hand foot take make
b) Derivative: Structure: (prefix) + root +(suffix) : kindunness Influence the meaning of the root Influence the part of speech of the root
In terms of grammatical function Closed-class wordswords Open-class wordswords
Closed-class words Definition: Closed-class words refer to those sets of words whose items are closed or limited in number and are only exceptionally extended by the creation of additional members.
Scope: All the Function Words: Preposition Pronoun Determiner Conjunction Auxiliary
Open-class Words Definition: Open-class words refer to those sets of words whose items are indefinitely extendable. New items are constantly being created and old items are giving place to new ones.
Scope: All the Content Words: Noun Adjective Adverb Main Verb NOTE: Cardinal Numeral, Ordinal Numeral and Interjection are between closed and open
0.3 Phrases Definition: is composed of one or more than one word. is a group of words organized in a specific way with a key Word as its Head. The word class of the Head determines the class of the phrase and the way in which the words are organized.
Word Class of Phrase : 1. Noun PhrasePhrase 2. Verb PhrasePhrase 3. Adjective PhrasePhrase 4. Adverb PhrasePhrase 5. Prepositional PhrasePhrase
1) The Noun Phrase: Structure: (Determiner) + (Pre-Modifier) + Noun + (Post-Modifier) all the college students Noun as the Head Noun as the Pre-Modifier Determiner
Exercise His new book on phonology Milton lived in the 17th century The author’s new novel that will soon come out Clause Prepositional Phrase Non-finite Verb Phrase book Milton novel
2) The Verb Phrase: In terms of the amount of verbs In terms of grammatical form Finite Verb PhraseVerb Phrase Non-finite Verb PhraseVerb Phrase Simple Verb PhraseVerb Phrase Complex Verb PhraseVerb Phrase Classification :
Simple Verb Phrase: Structure: (Modifier) + Main Verb + (Modifier) She looks pale. We utterly detested him. Main Verb Modifier + Main Verb
Complex Verb Phrase: Structure: Auxiliary /Auxiliaries + Main Verb + (Modifier) It is getting dark. She ought to have told him about it. Joan will certainly object and so will Mary.
Finite Verb Phrase: A finite verb phrase is initiated by a finite form, that is, a verb form that changes according to Tense or Subject. I loved you two years ago. Tommy loves Lora. Children love fairy tales. Verb phrases Person/ Number Tense
Non-finite Verb Phrase: A non-finite verb phrase is initiated by a non-finite form, that is, a verb form that does not change according to Tense or Subject. We went there to see a film. I usually go there to see a film. Robert seldom goes there to see a film. Andrew will go there to see a film. Non-finiteFinite
Point out finite and non- finite verb phrases: Having seen the film, we had a discussion. Painted by a famous artist, the portrait is invaluable. Tired from studying all afternoon, she went for a walk. Opening the book slowly and tentatively, she began to read. Non-finite Finite
3) The Adjective Phrase: Structure: (Modifier) + Adjective + (Post modifier / Complementation) The course is pretty difficult. I’ll be glad to help you repair the car if you show me what’s wrong. prettydifficult gladto help you repair the car
4) The Adverb Phrase: Structure: (Modifier) + Adverb + (post Modifier) He spoke loudly and clearly.
5) The Prepositional Phrase: Structure: (Modifier) + Preposition + Complementation The weather has been fine except in the north. Now their footsteps could be heard directly above my head. We are collecting money for the benefit of some orphans. except above for in the north my head the benefit of some orphans
0.4 Clauses: is composed of one or more than one phrase. A full-fledged clause is structurally a sequence of phrase and logically a construction of “Subject + Predicate”.
Classification: 1)In terms of grammatical function:grammatical function 2)In terms of the “Subject + Predicate” construction:Subject + Predicate 3)In terms of the relation between the clausesrelation 4)In terms of verb phrase typeverb phrase type 5)Verbless clauses clauses
1) In terms of grammatical function: Independent clause (IC) Dependent clause (DC) stand by itself act as a complete utterance forms only part of another clause or phrase He knows everything about it. I don’t think he knows everything about it.
Quiz: I went to the store. I didn't buy any bread. I went to the store; I didn't buy any bread. I went to the store, but I didn't buy any bread. I went to the store; however, I didn't buy any bread. When I went to the store, I didn't buy any bread. I didn't buy any bread when I went to the store. IC. IC; IC. IC, IC. IC; IC. DC, IC. IC DC.
2) In terms of the “Subject + Predicate” construction: Simple Clause Complex Clause only one construction of “subject + predicate” comprises another clause or other clauses as its element or elements
Examples: simple or complex? It is not true. What you said is not true. He said that it was not true. He complained that what you said was not true. Simple Complex Simple Complex DC IC DC
3) In terms of the relation between the clauses In a complex clause, the clause that takes another clause as its element is the main clause, while the clause that forms part of the main clause is a subordinate clause.
Example: He complained that what you said was not true. Main ClauseSubordinate Clause Main Clause
4) In terms of verb phrase type: In terms of verb phrase type: Finite Clause: Non-finite Clause: takes a finite verb phrase as its predicate verb takes a non-finite verb phrase as its predicator I signed the paper to get the license. (Non-finite clause) It is forbidden to smoke in this room. (Non-finite clause)
Quiz: Finite or Nonfinite? 1. Everybody left just after the ceremony 2. Inviting your sister was not a great decision 3. I'll be home around ten if my train is on time. 4. They expect Susan to do all the work. 5. Deprived of oxygen, plants will quickly die Nonfinite Finite Nonfinite
5) Verbless clauses is marked by the absence of any form of verb element is just a construction of “subject + predicate” without any form of verb element. Hungry and exhausted, the climbers returned. Christmas then only days away, the family was pent up with excitement.
A. Features: the highest rank of grammatical unit. the basic linguistic unit of connected discourse Based on one or more than one clause can stand alone and perform a function in social communication.
B. Definition a grammatical unit that can stand by itself and perform a communicative function.
C. Classification Full and Minor Sentences A minor sentence is only a sentence fragment which in specific contexts and situations can stand by itself and perform a communicative function. Minor sentences are extensively used in informal discourses. A: When did he arrive? B: Last night. No smoking! Fire!
Full Sentence A Full Sentence is a sentence with an expressed subject and predicate. This kind of sentence is mostly used in formal speech and writing. Classification Classification
Classification of Full Sentence: Simple Sentence Compound Sentence Complex Sentence Compound-complex Sentence one independent clause Two or more coordinated independent clauses an independent clause comprising one or more dependent clauses as its elements Two or more coordinated independent clauses with at least one complex clause
Examples: Jack and James play football every afternoon. Some students like to study in the mornings. Alicia goes to the library and studies every day. I tried to speak Spanish, and my friend tried to speak English. We had to go inside when it started raining. As long as it isn't cold, it doesn't matter if it rains. I admire Tim, but he doesn't admire me, although I try hard to impress him. S. Cpd. S. Cpx. S. Cpd. Cpx. S.