2Definition of GRAMMAR GRAMMAR: the structural system of a language. the branch of linguistics that deals with syntax and morphology (and sometimes also deals with semantics)LinguisticsSyntaxMorphologyGrammarSemantics
3Five Ranks the Sentence the Clause the Phrase the Word the Morpheme The grammar of the English language is organized into five ranks:the Sentencethe Clausethe Phrasethe Wordthe Morpheme
4Diagram of the five ranks: Each rank is composed of one or more than one grammatical unit of the immediate lower rank:SentencelowestClausePhraseWordhighestMorpheme
5Example Sentence Clause Phrases Words Morphemes A full sentence can generally be segmented rank by rank down to its smallest constituents---the morphemes.SentenceClauseThese undergraduates are rapidly improving in their writing.PhrasesNoun PhraseVerb PhrasePrepositional Phraseare rapidly improvingarein their writinginThese undergraduatesTheseWordsrapidlytheirundergraduatesimprovingwritingMorphemes
60.1 Morphemes 1.Definition: the minimum or smallest grammatical unit the smallest meaningful element of speech.2.Classification:Two categories: ) Free Morphemes ) Bound Morphemes *3) Allomorphs3. Diagram of Morpheme
71) Free Morphemes 1. Definition: has a complete meaning can stand by itself as a Simple Wordcan sometimes act as a complete utterance in connected speechto form Compound Words Derivatives
8Affix 2) Bound Morphemes are mostly affixes also meaningful, but the meaning is not complete in itself unless it is attached to some other formscannot stand by itself: it only exists as anAffixInflectional orDerivational
9Inflectional Affix -’s (genitive case) -s/-es (plural nouns) -s/-es (the third person singular verbs in simple present)-ed (past tense verbs)-ing, -ed (-ing participle, -ed participle form of verbs)-er, -est (comparative, superlative degree of adjectives/ adverbs)
140.2 Words is composed of one or more morpheme. can be classified in two ways:in terms ofword-formationgrammatical function
15In terms of Word-formation a) Simple Wordb) Derivativec) Compound Word
16a) Simple Word: also called Morpheme Word (free morpheme) minor but has frequent appearance and strong derivational abilitythe main body of English vocabularyusually the small wordat on down near hand foot take make
17b) Derivative: Structure: (prefix) + root +(suffix) : un kind ness Influence the meaning of the rootInfluence the part of speech of the root
19In terms of grammatical function Closed-class wordsOpen-class words
20Closed-class words Definition: Closed-class words refer to those sets of words whose items are closed or limited in number and are only exceptionally extended by the creation of additional members.
21Scope: All the Function Words: Preposition Pronoun Determiner Conjunction Auxiliary
22Open-class Words Definition: Open-class words refer to those sets of words whose items are indefinitely extendable. New items are constantly being created and old items are giving place to new ones.
23Scope: All the Content Words: NOTE: NounAdjectiveAdverbMain VerbNOTE:Cardinal Numeral, Ordinal Numeral and Interjection are between closed and open
240.3 Phrases Definition: is composed of one or more than one word. is a group of words organized in a specific way with a key Word as its Head.The word class of the Head determines the class of the phrase and the way in which the words are organized.
25Word Class of Phrase : Noun Phrase Verb Phrase Adjective Phrase Adverb PhrasePrepositional Phrase
26Noun as the Pre-Modifier 1) The Noun Phrase:Structure:(Determiner) + (Pre-Modifier) + Noun + (Post-Modifier)all the college studentsNoun as the HeadDeterminerNoun as the Pre-Modifier
27Non-finite Verb Phrase ExercisePrepositional PhraseNon-finite Verb PhraseHis new book on phonologyMilton lived in the 17th centuryThe author’s new novel that will soon come outbookMiltonnovelClause
28In terms of the amount of verbs 2) The Verb Phrase:Classification :In terms of the amount of verbsSimple Verb PhraseComplex Verb PhraseIn terms of grammatical formFinite Verb PhraseNon-finite Verb Phrase
29Simple Verb Phrase: Structure: (Modifier) + Main Verb + (Modifier) She looks pale.We utterly detested him.Main VerbModifier + Main Verb
30Complex Verb Phrase: Structure: It is getting dark. Auxiliary /Auxiliaries + Main Verb + (Modifier)It is getting dark.She ought to have told him about it.Joan will certainly object and so will Mary.
31Finite Verb Phrase:A finite verb phrase is initiated by a finite form, that is, a verb form that changes according to Tense or Subject.Verb phrasesI loved you two years ago.Tommy loves Lora.Person/ NumberTenseChildren love fairy tales.
32Non-finite Verb Phrase: A non-finite verb phrase is initiated by a non-finite form, that is, a verb form that does not change according to Tense or Subject.We went there to see a film.Robert seldom goes there to see a film.Andrew will go there to see a film.I usually go there to see a film.FiniteNon-finite
33Point out finite and non- finite verb phrases: Having seen the film, we had a discussion.Painted by a famous artist, the portrait is invaluable.Tired from studying all afternoon, she went for a walk.Opening the book slowly and tentatively, she began to read.FiniteNon-finite
343) The Adjective Phrase: Structure:(Modifier) + Adjective + (Post modifier / Complementation)The course is pretty difficult.I’ll be glad to help you repair the car if you show me what’s wrong.prettydifficultgladto help you repair the car
354) The Adverb Phrase: Structure: (Modifier) + Adverb + (post Modifier) He spoke loudly and clearly.
365) The Prepositional Phrase: Structure:(Modifier) + Preposition + ComplementationThe weather has been fine except in the north.Now their footsteps could be heard directly above my head.We are collecting money for the benefit of some orphans.exceptin the northabovemy headforthe benefit ofsome orphans
370.4 Clauses: is composed of one or more than one phrase. A full-fledged clause is structurally a sequence of phrase and logically a construction of “Subject + Predicate”.
38Classification: In terms of grammatical function: In terms of the “Subject + Predicate” construction:In terms of the relation between the clausesIn terms of verb phrase typeVerbless clauses
391) In terms of grammatical function: Independent clause (IC) Dependent clause (DC)stand by itself act as a complete utteranceforms only part of another clause or phraseHe knows everything about it.I don’t think he knows everything about it.
40Quiz: I went to the store. I didn't buy any bread. I went to the store, but I didn't buy any bread.I went to the store; however, I didn't buy any bread.When I went to the store, I didn't buy any bread.I didn't buy any bread when I went to the store.IC. IC.IC; IC.IC, IC.IC; IC.DC, IC.IC DC.
412) In terms of the “Subject + Predicate” construction: Simple Clause Complex Clauseonly one construction of “subject + predicate”comprises another clause or other clauses as its element or elements
42Examples: simple or complex? It is not true.What you said is not true.He said that it was not true.He complained that what you said was not true.ICSimpleSimpleICComplexComplexDCICSimpleComplexDCICComplexComplexDC
433) In terms of the relation between the clauses In a complex clause, the clause that takes another clause as its element is the main clause, while the clause that forms part of the main clause is a subordinate clause.
44Example: Main Clause Subordinate Clause He complained that what you said was not true.Subordinate ClauseMain Clause
454) In terms of verb phrase type: Finite Clause: Non-finite Clause:takes a finite verb phrase as its predicate verbtakes a non-finite verb phrase as its predicatorI signed the paper to get the license (Non-finite clause)It is forbidden to smoke in this room (Non-finite clause)
46Quiz: Finite or Nonfinite? 1. Everybody left just after the ceremony2. Inviting your sister was not a great decision3. I'll be home around ten if my train is on time.4. They expect Susan to do all the work.5. Deprived of oxygen, plants will quickly dieFiniteNonfiniteFiniteFiniteNonfinite
475) Verbless clausesis marked by the absence of any form of verb elementis just a construction of “subject + predicate” without any form of verb element.Hungry and exhausted, the climbers returned.Christmas then only days away, the family was pent up with excitement.
49A. Features: the highest rank of grammatical unit. the basic linguistic unit of connected discourseBased on one or more than one clausecan stand alone and perform a function in social communication.
50B. Definitiona grammatical unit that can stand by itself and perform a communicative function.
51C. Classification Full and Minor Sentences A minor sentence is only a sentence fragment which in specific contexts and situations can stand by itself and perform a communicative function.Minor sentences are extensively used in informal discourses.A: When did he arrive? B: Last night. No smoking! Fire!
52Full SentenceA Full Sentence is a sentence with an expressed subject and predicate.This kind of sentence is mostly used in formal speech and writing.Classification
53Classification of Full Sentence: Simple SentenceCompound SentenceComplex SentenceCompound-complex Sentenceone independent clauseTwo or more coordinated independent clausesan independent clause comprising one or more dependent clauses as its elementsTwo or more coordinated independent clauses with at least one complex clause
54Examples: Some students like to study in the mornings. Jack and James play football every afternoon.S. S.Alicia goes to the library and studies every day.S. S.I tried to speak Spanish, and my friend tried to speak English.Cpd. S.We had to go inside when it started raining.Cpx. S.As long as it isn't cold , it doesn't matter if it rains.Cpx. S.I admire Tim, but he doesn't admire me, although I try hard to impress him.Cpd. Cpx. S.