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E_English Grammar Course Chapter I Elements of grammar.

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Presentation on theme: "E_English Grammar Course Chapter I Elements of grammar."— Presentation transcript:

1 E_English Grammar Course Chapter I Elements of grammar

2 Issues 1. Introduction to Grammar 2. Morphemes and Words 3. Ways of word formation 4. Parts of speech 5. Parts of a sentence 6. Types of phrases, clauses, sentences

3 Introduction to Grammar Grammar In global sense In narrow sense 1 1/1

4 Introduction to Grammar Grammar In global sense In narrow sense equals competence, a body of knowledge that a native speaker has about his/her language which enables him/her to speak and understand it. includes word and sentence structure rules, pronunciation rules, meaning of words/ sentences, and discourse organization rules. equals competence, a body of knowledge that a native speaker has about his/her language which enables him/her to speak and understand it. includes word and sentence structure rules, pronunciation rules, meaning of words/ sentences, and discourse organization rules. 1 2/1

5 Introduction to Grammar Grammar In global sense In narrow sense refers only to the formation of the word and sentence structures. consists of morphology, the study of words and word formation, and syntax, the study of phrases, clauses, and sentences. refers only to the formation of the word and sentence structures. consists of morphology, the study of words and word formation, and syntax, the study of phrases, clauses, and sentences. 1 3/1

6 Morphemes and Words discourse sentence phrase word morpheme 2 1/2

7 Morphemes and Words discourse sentence phrase word morpheme I actually felt tired of sitting doing nothing. And I hated enjoying the unemployment benefit. I found myself useless. Then I decided to look for a job. I found myself useless. hated enjoying hated, enjoying enjoy, -ing 2 2/2

8 Lexical item – meaning LEXICAL ITEM = A basic unit of meaning … A single word (E.g.: man, boy) Less than a word (E.g.: terr in terror) More than one word (E.g.: to rain dogs and cats) 2 3/2

9 Lexical item – meaning LEXICAL ITEM MEANING & Lexical item and meaning has arbitrary relationship. 2 4/2

10 Morpheme - Word MORPHEME = A minimal meaningful unit E.g.: re/try boy/s 5/2 2

11 Morpheme - Word WORD = An independent meaningful unit. E.g.: try boy turn return 2 6/2

12 Occurrence Types Free (words) Bound (affixes) GrammaticalFunction words: prepositions, pronouns, conjunctions.... inflectional (suffixes) LexicalContent words: Nouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives derivational (prefixes, suffixes) Types of morphemes 2 7/2

13 Inflectional morphemesDerivational morphemes Inflectional vs. Derivational morphemes modify the meaning of an item but not change its parts of speech. can change meaning of the stem and typically, they change the part of speech. 2 8/2

14 Inflectional morphemesDerivational morphemes Inflectional vs. Derivational morphemes are changes in words to express their semantic and syntactic relationships to other words in the sentence. E.g.: s in Bush says indicates the present tense and the subject is third person and singular. indicate semantic relationships within words. E.g.: the morpheme ful in beautiful has no connection with other morphemes beyond the word. 2 9/2

15 Inflectional morphemesDerivational morphemes Inflectional vs. Derivational morphemes are regularly distributed. They occur with all or most members of a word class. E.g.: s (3rd person singular present) occurs with most verbs. do not occur across whole classes. E.g.: not all verbs take the derivational suffix al as refuse, propose. 2 10/2

16 Inflectional morphemesDerivational morphemes Inflectional vs. Derivational morphemes typically occur away from the root. E.g.: the plural morpheme s occurs at the end of a word, after all other morphemes. occur close to the root, before inflectional morphemes. 2 11/2

17 Inflectional morphemesDerivational morphemes Inflectional vs. Derivational morphemes -s: 3rd person singular present -ed: past tense -ing: present participle -en: past participle -s: Plural -s: possessive -er:comparative -est: superlative There are a large number of derivational morphemes, which can be prefixes or suffixes. 2 12/2

18 Inflectional vs. Derivational morphemes Work in groups of 3 Each group make a list of 5 inflectional and 5 derivational morphemes The fastest group win the game 2 13/2

19 Prefixation: adding a prefix to the base E.g.: Non-stop Predict Morphological processes of word formation 1/3 3

20 Suffixation: adding a suffix to the base E.g.: Economist Grammatical Morphological processes of word formation 2/3 3

21 Conversion: a change of word-classes without affix. E.g.: Import (n), (v) Abstract (n), (adj) Morphological processes of word formation 3/3 3

22 Compounding: word formation from two or more bases. E.g. Greenhouse effect Desktop computer Morphological processes of word formation 4/3 3

23 Clipping: shortening a word E.g.: Phone from telephone Photo from photograph Flu from influenza Morphological processes of word formation 5/3 3

24 Reduplication: word formation from two or more either identical or slightly different elements. E.g.: Goody-goody Tick-tock Seesaw Wishy-washy Tip-top Morphological processes of word formation 6/3 3

25 Blending: word formation from two separate forms. E.g.: Motel from motor and hotel Smog from smoke and fog. Morphological processes of word formation 7/3 3

26 Acronym: word formation from initial letters of a series of words. E.g.: TV from television FAQ from frequently asked question. Morphological processes of word formation 8/3 3

27 Others Coinage Borrowing Morphological processes of word formation Backformation Sound + stress interchange Sound imitation E.g.: aspirin E.g.: boss, piano E.g.: opt (option) E.g.: conduct E.g.: kiwi 3 9/3

28 Morphological processes of word formation 3 10/3 Each student receives an affix Group yourselves into prefixes and suffixes Each student gives an example of his/her affix

29 Parts of speech Closed system Open class 4 1/4

30 Parts of speech Closed system Open class 4 comprises functional words such as articles, demonstratives, pronouns prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections 2/4

31 Parts of speech Closed system Open class 4 Features: unextendable number of members reciprocally exclusive reciprocally defining unstressed in spoken language Features: unextendable number of members reciprocally exclusive reciprocally defining unstressed in spoken language 3/4

32 Parts of speech Closed system Open class 4 comprises notional/ lexical words such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs 4/4

33 Parts of speech Closed system Open class 4 Features: extendable number of members combinability having certain syntactic functions stressed words in spoken language Features: extendable number of members combinability having certain syntactic functions stressed words in spoken language 5/4

34 Parts of speech 4 6/4 Decide if the following words belong to closed-system or open class blue head the that summarize which you open closed open closed

35 Parts of a sentence Subject Predicate 5 Operator 1/5

36 Parts of a sentence Subject Predicate 5 Operator What is being discussed – theme. E.g.: Her parents visit her sick uncle every day. What is being discussed – theme. E.g.: Her parents visit her sick uncle every day. 2/5

37 Parts of a sentence Parts of speech Subject Predicate 5 Operator What is being said about the subject – rheme. E.g.: Her parents visit her sick uncle every day. What is being said about the subject – rheme. E.g.: Her parents visit her sick uncle every day. 3/5

38 Parts of a sentence Parts of speech Subject Predicate 5 Operator What helps to change a sentence into: - interrogative E.g.: Do her parents visit her every day? - negative E.g.: Her parents do not visit her every day. - emphatic E.g.: Her parents do visit her every day. What helps to change a sentence into: - interrogative E.g.: Do her parents visit her every day? - negative E.g.: Her parents do not visit her every day. - emphatic E.g.: Her parents do visit her every day. 4/5

39 Parts of a sentence Parts of speech Subject Predicate 5 Operator 5/5 Lexical verbs Auxiliaries Primary Modal include BE & HAVE E.g.: I am a student and I have a part-time job. include BE & HAVE E.g.: I am a student and I have a part-time job. include BE & HAVE E.g.: I am cooking. include BE & HAVE E.g.: I am cooking. include will, shall, should, can, might, etc. E.g.: I can cook. include will, shall, should, can, might, etc. E.g.: I can cook.

40 Parts of a sentence Sentence elements 5 Subject Verb Object Complement Adverbial 6/5

41 Parts of a sentence Sentence elements 5 Subject Verb Object Complement Adverbial Intensive Extensive + Cs (1) + A (obli) (2) intransitive (3) transitive mono-transitive (4) di-transitive (5) complex-transitive (6,7) 7/5

42 Parts of a sentence Sentence elements 5 Subject Verb Object Complement Adverbial He is lovely.SVCs (1) intensive He is out of the office.SVA (obli) (2) He is crying.SV (3)intransitiveextensive He broke the vase.SVO (4)transitive He sent me an .SVOO (5) He found the play boring. SVOCo (6) He put the vase on the table. SVOA (obli) (7) 8/5

43 Parts of a sentence Sentence elements 5 Subject Verb Object Complement Adverbial Stative Dynamic Not progressive form Progressive form E.g.: The food he cooked tasted very good. E.g.: She is tasting the food hes cooked. 9/5

44 Parts of a sentence Sentence elements 5 Subject Verb Object Complement Adverbial indirect (Oi) direct (Od) E.g.: He sent me (Oi) a postcard (Od). 10/5

45 Parts of a sentence Sentence elements 5 Subject Verb Object Complement Adverbial E.g.: His brother who is a teacher (Cs) considers me his best friend (Co). E.g.: His brother who is a teacher (Cs) considers me his best friend (Co). Object Complement (Co) Subject Complement (Cs) 11/5

46 Parts of a sentence Sentence elements 5 Subject Verb Object Complement Adverbial E.g.: He goes fishing on Tuesday. (Aopt) His birthday is on Tuesday. (A obli) E.g.: He goes fishing on Tuesday. (Aopt) His birthday is on Tuesday. (A obli) obligatory optional 12/5

47 Types of phrases, clauses, sentences Syntax Phrase Clause 6 Sentence 1/6

48 Types of phrases, clauses, sentences Syntax Phrase Clause 6 Sentence Adverb phrase Adjective phrase Verb phrase Noun phrase Prepositional phrase E.g.: All these books are mine. E.g.: John has been looking for Jane. E.g.: Tom is a very interesting man. E.g.: He ran quite fast. E.g.: Hes lecturing on the new technology. 2/6

49 Types of phrases, clauses, sentences Syntax Phrase Clause 6 Sentence In terms of Clauses elements & verb patterns In terms of kinds of verb phrases In terms of functions of the clause 3/6

50 Types of phrases, clauses, sentences Syntax Phrase Clause 6 Sentence In terms of Clauses elements & verb patterns In terms of kinds of verb phrases In terms of functions of the clause SVA: John is at home SVCs: John is a doctor. SVO: John has cured many serious patients. SVOO: He gives his patients the same prescription. SVOA: He put the prescription in a secret file. SVOCo: He calls his patients big fish. SV: Hes going out. SVA: John is at home SVCs: John is a doctor. SVO: John has cured many serious patients. SVOO: He gives his patients the same prescription. SVOA: He put the prescription in a secret file. SVOCo: He calls his patients big fish. SV: Hes going out. 4/6

51 Types of phrases, clauses, sentences Syntax Phrase Clause 6 Sentence In terms of Clauses elements & verb patterns In terms of kinds of verb phrases In terms of functions of the clause Finite clause E.g.: He took her out of the blue. Non-finite clause E.g.: Coming to the town, he visited his parents. Verbless clause E.g.: If possible, come to see us. Finite clause E.g.: He took her out of the blue. Non-finite clause E.g.: Coming to the town, he visited his parents. Verbless clause E.g.: If possible, come to see us. 5/6

52 Types of phrases, clauses, sentences Syntax Phrase Clause 6 Sentence In terms of Clauses elements & verb patterns In terms of kinds of verb phrases In terms of functions of the clause Subordinate Superordinate E.g.: She said that you hit her first. subordinate superordinate Subordinate Superordinate E.g.: She said that you hit her first. subordinate superordinate 6/6

53 Types of phrases, clauses, sentences Syntax Phrase Clause 6 Sentence Complex compound Complex Compound Simple E.g.: All these books are mine. E.g.: He was watching T.V and she was cooking. E.g.: He didnt want to talk to whoever he met in the London workshop. E.g.: He didnt want to talk to whoever he met in the London workshop. E.g.: Having seldom talked anyone before, the child simply wide opened his beautiful eyes and looked at the stranger. E.g.: Having seldom talked anyone before, the child simply wide opened his beautiful eyes and looked at the stranger. 7/6

54 Homework Exercises 4-7, Workbook


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