Presentation on theme: "E_English Grammar Course"— Presentation transcript:
1E_English Grammar Course Chapter IElements of grammar
2Issues 1. Introduction to Grammar 2. Morphemes and Words 3. Ways of word formation4. Parts of speech5. Parts of a sentence6. Types of phrases, clauses, sentences
3Introduction to Grammar 1/11Introduction to GrammarGrammarIn global senseIn narrow sense
4Introduction to Grammar 2/11Introduction to GrammarGrammarIn global senseequals competence, a body of knowledge that anative speaker has about his/her language whichenables him/her to speak and understand it.includes word and sentence structure rules,pronunciation rules, meaning of words/ sentences,and discourse organization rules.In narrow sense
5Introduction to Grammar 3/11Introduction to Grammarrefers only to the formation of the word and sentencestructures.consists of morphology, the study of words and wordformation, and syntax, the study of phrases, clauses,and sentences.GrammarIn global senseIn narrow sense
61/22Morphemes and Wordsdiscoursesentencephrasewordmorpheme
72 Morphemes and Words discourse sentence phrase word morpheme 2/2 I foundmyselfuseless.discoursesentencephrasewordmorphemehated enjoyinghated,enjoyingI actually felt tired of sitting doing nothing. And I hated enjoying the unemployment benefit. I found myself useless. Then I decided to look for a job.enjoy,-ing
82 Lexical item – meaning LEXICAL ITEM = A basic unit of meaning … 3/22Lexical item – meaningLEXICAL ITEM= A basic unit of meaning …A single word(E.g.: man, boy)Less than a word(E.g.: terr in terror)More than one word(E.g.: to rain dogs and cats)
9Lexical item and meaning has arbitrary relationship. 4/22Lexical item – meaningLEXICAL ITEM&MEANINGLexical item and meaning has arbitrary relationship.
102 Morpheme - Word MORPHEME = A minimal meaningful unit E.g.: re/try 5/22Morpheme - WordMORPHEME= A minimal meaningful unitE.g.: re/tryboy/s
112 Morpheme - Word WORD = An independent meaningful unit. E.g.: try boy 6/22Morpheme - WordWORD= An independent meaningful unit.E.g.: tryboyturnreturn
13Inflectional vs. Derivational morphemes 8/22Inflectional vs. Derivational morphemesInflectional morphemesDerivational morphemesmodify the meaning of an item but not change its parts of speech.can change meaning of the stem and typically, they change the part of speech.
14Inflectional vs. Derivational morphemes 9/22Inflectional vs. Derivational morphemesInflectional morphemesDerivational morphemesare changes in words to express their semantic and syntactic relationships to other words in the sentence.E.g.: ‘s’ in ‘Bush says’ indicates the present tense and the subject is third person and singular.indicate semantic relationships within words.E.g.: the morpheme ‘ful’ in ‘beautiful’ has no connection with other morphemes beyond the word.
15Inflectional vs. Derivational morphemes 10/22Inflectional vs. Derivational morphemesInflectional morphemesDerivational morphemesare regularly distributed. They occur with all or most members of a word class.E.g.: ‘s’ (3rd person singular present) occurs with most verbs.do not occur across whole classes.E.g.: not all verbs take the derivational suffix ‘al’ as refuse, propose.
16Inflectional vs. Derivational morphemes 11/22Inflectional vs. Derivational morphemesInflectional morphemesDerivational morphemestypically occur away from the root.E.g.: the plural morpheme ‘s’ occurs at the end of a word, after all other morphemes.occur close to the root, before inflectional morphemes.
17Inflectional vs. Derivational morphemes 12/22Inflectional vs. Derivational morphemesInflectional morphemesDerivational morphemes-s: 3rd person singular present-ed: past tense-ing: present participle-en: past participle-s: Plural-s: possessive-er:comparative-est: superlativeThere are a large number of derivational morphemes, which can be prefixes or suffixes.
18Inflectional vs. Derivational morphemes 13/22Inflectional vs. Derivational morphemesWork in groups of 3Each group make a list of 5 inflectional and 5 derivational morphemesThe fastest group win the game
193 Morphological processes of word formation 1/33Morphological processes of word formationPrefixation:adding a prefix to the baseE.g.: Non-stopPredict
203 Morphological processes of word formation 2/33Morphological processes of word formationSuffixation:adding a suffix to the baseE.g.: EconomistGrammatical
213 Morphological processes of word formation 3/33Morphological processes of word formationConversion:a change of word-classes without affix.E.g.: Import (n), (v)Abstract (n), (adj)
223 Morphological processes of word formation 4/33Morphological processes of word formationCompounding:word formation from two or more bases.E.g. Greenhouse effectDesktop computer
233 Morphological processes of word formation shortening a word 5/33Morphological processes of word formationClipping:shortening a wordE.g.: Phone from telephonePhoto from photographFlu from influenza
243 Morphological processes of word formation 6/33Morphological processes of word formationReduplication:word formation from two or more either identical or slightly different elements.E.g.: Goody-goodyTick-tockSeesawWishy-washyTip-top
253 Morphological processes of word formation 7/3Morphological processes of word formation3Blending:word formation from two separate forms.E.g.: Motel from motor and hotelSmog from smoke and fog.
263 Morphological processes of word formation 8/33Morphological processes of word formationAcronym:word formation from initial letters of a series of words.E.g.: TV from televisionFAQ from frequently asked question.
27Sound + stress interchange 9/33Morphological processes of word formationE.g.: aspirinOthersCoinageE.g.: boss, pianoBorrowingE.g.: opt (option)BackformationE.g.: conductSound + stress interchangeE.g.: kiwiSound imitation
283 Morphological processes of word formation 10/33Morphological processes of word formationEach student receives an affixGroup yourselves into prefixes and suffixesEach student gives an example of his/her affix
291/44Parts of speechParts of speechClosed systemOpen class
304 Parts of speech Parts of speech Open class Closed system 2/4 comprises functional words such as articles, demonstratives, pronouns prepositions, conjunctions, and interjectionsOpen class
314 Parts of speech Parts of speech Open class Closed system 3/4 Features:unextendable number of membersreciprocally exclusivereciprocally definingunstressed in spoken languageOpen class
324 Parts of speech Parts of speech Open class Closed system 4/4 comprises notional/ lexical words such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbsClosed systemOpen class
334 Parts of speech Parts of speech Open class Closed system 5/4 Features:extendable number of memberscombinabilityhaving certain syntactic functionsstressed words in spoken languageClosed systemOpen class
346/44Parts of speechDecide if the following words belong to closed-system or open classblueheadthethatsummarizewhichyouopenclosed
355 Parts of a sentence Parts of a sentence Subject Predicate Operator 1/55Parts of a sentenceParts of a sentenceSubjectPredicateOperator
365 Parts of a sentence Parts of a sentence Subject Predicate Operator 2/55Parts of a sentenceParts of a sentenceSubjectPredicateOperatorWhat is being discussed – theme.E.g.: Her parents visit her sick uncleevery day.
375 Parts of a sentence Parts of speech Subject Predicate Operator 3/5 What is being said about the subject – rheme.E.g.: Her parents visit her sick uncleevery day.
385 Parts of a sentence Parts of speech Subject Predicate Operator 4/5 What helps to change a sentence into:- interrogativeE.g.: Do her parents visit her every day?negativeE.g.: Her parents do not visit her every day.- emphaticE.g.: Her parents do visit her every day.SubjectPredicateOperator
395 Parts of a sentence Parts of speech Subject Predicate Operator 5/5 include BE & HAVEE.g.: I am a student and I have a part-time job.Lexical verbsinclude BE & HAVEE.g.: I am cooking.PrimaryAuxiliariesinclude will, shall, should, can, might, etc.E.g.: I can cook.Modal
405 Parts of a sentence Sentence elements Subject Verb Object Complement 6/55Parts of a sentenceSentence elementsSubjectVerbObjectComplementAdverbial
415 Parts of a sentence Sentence elements Subject Verb Object Complement 7/55Parts of a sentenceSentence elementsIntensiveExtensive+ Cs (1)+ A (obli)(2)intransitive(3)transitivemono-transitive(4)di-transitive (5)complex-transitive(6,7)SubjectVerbObjectComplementAdverbial
425 Parts of a sentence Sentence elements Subject Verb Object Complement 8/55Parts of a sentenceSentence elementsHe is lovely.SVCs (1)intensiveHe is out of the office.SVA (obli)(2)He is crying.SV (3)intransitiveextensiveHe broke the vase.SVO (4)transitiveHe sent me an .SVOO (5)He found the play boring.SVOCo (6)He put the vase on the table.SVOA (obli)(7)SubjectVerbObjectComplementAdverbial
435 Parts of a sentence Sentence elements Subject Verb Object Complement 9/55Parts of a sentenceSentence elementsSubjectStativeNot progressive formVerbE.g.: The food he cooked tasted very good.ObjectDynamicProgressive formComplementE.g.: She is tasting the food he’s cooked.Adverbial
445 Parts of a sentence Sentence elements Subject Verb Object Complement 10/55Parts of a sentenceSentence elementsSubjectVerbindirect (Oi)direct (Od)ObjectComplementE.g.: He sent me (Oi) a postcard (Od).Adverbial
45Object Complement (Co) Subject Complement (Cs) 11/55Parts of a sentenceSentence elementsSubjectE.g.: His brother who is a teacher (Cs)considers me his best friend (Co).VerbObjectObject Complement (Co)Subject Complement (Cs)ComplementAdverbial
465 Parts of a sentence Sentence elements Subject Verb Object Complement 12/55Parts of a sentenceSentence elementsSubjectVerbE.g.: He goes fishing on Tuesday. (Aopt)His birthday is on Tuesday. (A obli)ObjectComplementobligatoryoptionalAdverbial
47Types of phrases, clauses, sentences 1/66Types of phrases, clauses, sentencesSyntaxPhraseClauseSentence
48Types of phrases, clauses, sentences 2/66Types of phrases, clauses, sentencesSyntaxPhraseClauseSentenceNoun phraseE.g.: All these books are mine.Verb phraseE.g.: John has been looking for Jane.Adjective phraseE.g.: Tom is a very interesting man.Adverb phraseE.g.: He ran quite fast.Prepositional phraseE.g.: He’s lecturing on the new technology.
49Types of phrases, clauses, sentences 3/66Types of phrases, clauses, sentencesSyntaxPhraseClauseSentenceIn terms of Clause’s elements & verb patternsIn terms of functions of the clauseIn terms of kinds of verb phrases
50Types of phrases, clauses, sentences 4/66Types of phrases, clauses, sentencesSyntaxPhraseClauseSentenceSVA: John is at homeSVCs: John is a doctor.SVO: John has cured many serious patients.SVOO: He gives his patients the sameprescription.SVOA: He put the prescription in a secret file.SVOCo: He calls his patients big fish.SV: He’s going out.In terms of Clause’s elements & verb patternsIn terms of functions of the clauseIn terms of kinds of verb phrases
51Types of phrases, clauses, sentences 5/6Types of phrases, clauses, sentences6SyntaxPhraseClauseSentenceIn terms of Clause’s elements & verb patternsIn terms of functions of the clauseIn terms of kinds of verb phrasesFinite clauseE.g.: He took her out of the blue.Non-finite clauseE.g.: Coming to the town, he visited his parents.Verbless clauseE.g.: If possible, come to see us.
52Types of phrases, clauses, sentences 6/66Types of phrases, clauses, sentencesSyntaxPhraseClauseSentenceIn terms of Clause’s elements & verb patternsIn terms of functions of the clauseIn terms of kinds of verb phrasesSubordinateSuperordinateE.g.: She said that you hit her first.subordinatesuperordinate
53Types of phrases, clauses, sentences 7/66Types of phrases, clauses, sentencesSyntaxPhraseClauseSentenceE.g.: All these books are mine.SimpleE.g.: He was watching T.V and she was cooking.CompoundE.g.: He didn’t want to talk to whoever he met inthe London workshop.ComplexComplex compoundE.g.: Having seldom talked anyone before, thechild simply wide opened his beautiful eyesand looked at the stranger.