Presentation on theme: "Lecture1 Sentence Structure There two main points in this lecture: 1.1 Clause Elements (P15) 1.2 Basic Clause Types and Their Transformation and Expansion."— Presentation transcript:
Lecture1 Sentence Structure There two main points in this lecture: 1.1 Clause Elements (P15) 1.2 Basic Clause Types and Their Transformation and Expansion (P20)
1.1 Clause elements A review on what is Clause: The clause (the simple sentence) : structurally a sequence of phrase logically a construction of “subject + predicate”.
1) Subject and predicate A full-fledged clause can generally be divided into two parts: the subject and the predicate. Subject Predicate Henry is the most studious (diligent) in the class. All the men have done their best. Mr. Carter will investigate further.
The subject: the topic or theme of the sentence, tells of what the sentence is about (known information). The subject is generally realized by a noun phrase or an equivalent of noun phrase
The Predicate: says something about the subject and bears the new information (the speaker or writer wants to transmit to the listener or reader). The construction of the predicate, which is more complicated, generally consists of a verb phrase with or without complementation.
2) Two Ways of Sentence Analysis 1. To divide the predicate into predicate verb, object, complement and adverbial. These elements together with the subject make the five clause elements. Predicate 2. Predicate Verb 3. Object 4. Complement 5. Adverbial 1. Subject Five Clause Elements ﹢
2. To divide the predicate into two parts: the operator and the predication. –The operator is usually the auxiliary or the first auxiliary in a complex verb phrase –The predication comprises the main verb with its complementation (object, complement or adverbial).
1.2 Basic Clause Types and Their Transformation and Expansion In terms of the different combinations of clause elements, English clauses can be classified into seven basic types. Innumerable authentic sentences are structured on the basis of these clause types.
1) Basic Clause Types The seven basic clause types are: SV SVC SVA SVO SVOA SVOC SVoO These seven combinations of clause elements are wholly or largely determined by the Main Verb in the clause.
SVC:SVC: The main verb in an SVC pattern is a Linking / Copula Verb which must be followed by a Subject Complement. That car is mine. She is in good health.
SV / SVA : The main verb in an SV pattern is an Intransitive Verb which is not to be followed by any obligatory element except for a limited number of intransitive verbs which require an obligatory Adverbial, thus constituting the pattern SVA. Every body laughed. The children are sleeping. I live in Beijing. The train leaves at six.
SVO / SVOA : The main verb in an SVO pattern is a Monotransitive which must be followed by an object, and with some monotransitives the object must be followed by an obligatory adverbial, thus constituting the pattern SVOA. Nobody could answer the question. Liverpool won the game. I put the material evidence in front of her. He treated her vilely.
SVoO:SVoO: The main verb in an SVoO pattern is a Ditransitive Verb which is to be followed by two objects: Indirect and Direct Object. Mary lent me her car. I made myself a cup of tea.
SVOC:SVOC: The main verb in an SVOC pattern is a complex transitive verb which must be followed by an object + object complement. We made him our spokesman. They elected him president.
2) Transformation and Expansion of Basic Clause Types Ways of Transformation: The basic clause types are all affirmative statements with verbs in the active voice. Negative Question Passive Voice Affirmative Statement Active Voice
Ways of Expansion: 1.adding modifiers at various levels 2.by coordination and subordination Modifiers Coordination Subordination Compound Sen. Complex Sen. Compound Complex Sen. Clause ﹢ ﹢ ﹢
When reports came into London Zoo that a wild puma had been spotted forty-five miles south of London, they were not taken seriously, but, as the evidence began to accumulate, experts from the Zoo felt obliged to investigate, for the descriptions given by people who claimed to have seen the puma were extraordinarily similar.
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reports came into London Zoo a wild puma had been spotted forty-five miles south of London they were not taken seriously the evidence began to accumulate experts from the Zoo felt obliged to investigate the descriptions given by people were extraordinarily similar who claimed to have seen the puma C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 When that, but, as, for
C7 C6 C1 C5 C4 C3 C2 Coordinate, but, S u b o r d i n a t e S u b o r d i n a t e Subordinate When as, for that The Structure of Sentence 1
C3C5 C4C6 C7 C1 C2 Coordinate Subordinate The Structure of Sentence 1