3Chapter GoalsName the organs of the respiratory system and describe their location and function.Identify various pathological conditions that affect the system.Learn medical terms that pertain to respiration.
4Chapter Goals (cont’d) Describe important clinical procedures related to the respiratory system, and recognize relevant abbreviations.Apply your new knowledge to understanding medical terms in their proper contexts, such as medical reports and records.
6Introduction External respiration: Exchange of air in lung capillaries oxygen inhaled into the air sacs of the lungsimmediately passes into capillariescarbon dioxide passes from capillaries into air sacs, to be exhaledWhat percent of oxygen does inhaled air contain? (about 21%)What percent of oxygen does exhaled air contain? (about 16%)What is the medical term for air sacs?
7Introduction (cont’d) Internal respiration: Exchange of gases in the cellsoccurs simultaneously between cells and capillariesoxygen passes out of the bloodstream into the tissuescarbon dioxide passes out of tissues back into the bloodstream to travel to the lungs
8Respiratory AnatomyMediastinum: Middle of chest where trachea divides into two branchesBronchi: Each leads to a separate lungLungs: Lobes are not mirror imagesHilum: Blood vessels, nerves, lymphatic tissue, and bronchial tubes enter and exitWhat is the singular form of bronchi? (bronchus)Which lung is larger? (right)How many lobes does each lung have? (right: three, left: two)
9Anatomy of Respiration Engage the class to identify the organs of the respiratory system.Trace the path of a breath of air.
10Anatomy of Respiration (cont’d) Engage the class to identify the organs of the respiratory system.Trace the path of a breath of air.
11Respiratory Structures Conduct airNoseNasal cavities and paranasal sinusesPharynxLarynxTracheaExchange gasesBronchiolesAlveoliLung capillaries
12Respiratory Flow Chart Trace the flow, and then conduct the class activity in the lesson plan by dividing the class into two groups and assigning each a gas. (see LP 12.1)
13Respiratory Flow Chart (cont’d) Trace the flow, and then conduct the class activity in the lesson plan by dividing the class into two groups and assigning each a gas. (see LP 12.1)
14Vocabulary adenoids alveolus (alveoli) apex of the lung base of the lungbrochiolesbronchus (bronchi)carbon dioxideReference pp for definitions of vocabulary terms
15Vocabulary (cont’d) cilia diaphragm epiglottis expiration glottis hiluminspirationlarynxReference pp for definitions of vocabulary terms
16Vocabulary (cont’d) lobe mediastinum nares oxygen palatine tonsil paranasal sinusparietal pleuraReference pp for definitions of vocabulary terms
17Vocabulary (cont’d) pharynx pleura pleural cavity pulmonary parenchyma respirationtracheavisceral pleuraReference pp for definitions of vocabulary terms
18QUICK QUIZ: 1. What is the tip or uppermost portion of the lung? base lobeapexnaresCorrect answer is C: apex
19Combining Forms and Terminology adenoid/o adenoidsalveol/o alveolus, air sacbronch/o bronchial tubebronchi/o bronchusbronchiol/o bronchiole, small bronchuscapn/o carbon dioxideCombining Form Meaning
20Combining Forms and Terminology (cont’d) coni/o dustcyan/o blueepiglott/o epiglottislaryng/o larynx, voice boxlob/o lobe of the lungmediastin/o mediastinumCombining Form Meaning
21Combining Forms and Terminology (cont’d) nas/o noseorth/o straight, uprightox/o oxygenpector/o chestpharyng/o pharynx, throatphon/o voiceCombining Form Meaning
22Combining Forms and Terminology (cont’d) phren/o diaphragmpleur/o pleurapneum/o air, lungpneumon/o lungpulmon/o lungrhin/o noseCombining Form Meaning
23Combining Forms and Terminology (cont’d) sinus/o sinus cavityspir/o breathingtel/o completethorac/o chesttonsill/o tonsilstrache/o trachea, windpipeCombining Form Meaning
24Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Terminology -ema condition-osmia smell-pnea breathing-ptysis spitting-sphyxia pulse-thorax pleural cavity, chestSuffix Meaning
26Diagnostic Terms auscultation percussion pleural rub rale (crackle) rhonchussputumstridorwheezeMany of these terms are ways to help identify respiratory abnormalities that can be heard.Discuss the fact that auscultation, though not high tech, is still a very effective way to uncover disease.
27Pathology Upper Respiratory Disorders croup diphtheria epistaxis pertussisDistinguish between disorders arising from infectious agents, trauma, neoplasms, or genetic disorders. Which are most often caused by smoking?Epistaxis is also known as rhinorrhagia, but epistaxis is the more commonly used term for nosebleed.
28Pathology (cont’d) Bronchial Tube Disorders asthma bronchiectasis chronic bronchitiscystic fibrosisDistinguish between disorders arising from infectious agents, trauma, neoplasms, or genetic disorders. Which are most often caused by smoking?Epistaxis is also known as rhinorrhagia, but epistaxis is the more commonly used term for nosebleed.
29Pathology (cont’d) Lung Disorders atelectasis emphysema lung cancerpneumoconiosispneumoniapulmonary abscesspulmonary edemapulmonary embolism (PE)pulmonary fibrosissarcoidosistuberculosis (TB)Distinguish between disorders arising from infectious agents, trauma, neoplasms, or genetic disorders.What are the types of pneumoconiosis?
30Pathology Lung Disorders AtelectasisTwo formsProximal obstruction of distal airwaysAccumulations of fluid, blood, or air in pleural cavityDistinguish between atelectasis and pneumothorax.
31Pathology Pleural Disorders mesothelioma pleural effusion pleurisy (pleuritis)pneumothoraxDistinguish between disorders arising from infectious agents, trauma, neoplasms, or genetic disorders.Use slides to discuss definitions, context, spelling, and derivations.
32Pathology Pleural Disorders Pneumothorax: Air gathers in the pleural cavityExplain collapsed lung.What conditions may cause a lung to collapse?What are some examples of trauma- and disease-induced collapsed lung?
33Study Section anthracosis asbestosis bacilli chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)cor pulmonaleexudatehydrothoraxinfiltratepalliativeparoxysmalpulmonary infarctionpurulentsilicosisDistinguish between disorders arising from infectious agents, trauma, neoplasms or genetic disorders.
35Clinical Procedures X-rays chest x-ray (CXR) computed tomography (CT) scan of the chestpulmonary angiographyBriefly discuss the technology of each type of x-ray.For what kinds of information (hard tissues, soft tissue, etc.) and which conditions is each type best suited?
36Clinical Procedures (cont’d) X-rays: Radiographic imagingUse this slide to discuss point of view, right and left, dorsal and ventral, and landmarks.
37Clinical Procedures (cont’d) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): Magnetic waves create images
38Clinical Procedures (cont’d) Radioactive TestsPositron emission tomography (PET) scan of the lung:Ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scan: inhalation of radioactive gas for imaging, followed by injection of different radioactive material for imaging
39Clinical Procedures (cont’d) Bronchioscopy: Fiberoptic or rigid endoscope inserted into the bronchial tubes for diagnosis, biopsy, or collection of specimensWhy would a physician recommend this invasive diagnostic procedure?What are the pros and cons?What can the physician expect to learn?
40Clinical Procedures (cont’d) Endotracheal intubation: placement of tube from mouth to trachea to establish airwayWatch an episode of ER and count how many times they do this procedure in the ER.Why do many people coming into the emergency room need this procedure?Why is this done for surgical patients?
41Clinical Procedures (cont’d) laryngoscopylung biopsymediastinoscopypulmonary function tests (PFTs)thoracotomythorascopytracheostomytuberculin testtube thoracostomyWhy do many of these procedures start with “thor”?What is the difference between laryngoscopy, mediastinoscopy, and thorascopy?
42Clinical Procedures (cont’d) Thoracentesis: surgical puncture toremove fluid from pleural space
43Clinical Procedures (cont’d) Tracheostomy: Surgical creation of opening into the trachea throughthe neckUnder what conditions would a physician perform this invasive procedure?Explain advantages and disadvantages.
44Review Sheet adenoid/o ____________ alveol/o ____________ COMBINING FORMSadenoid/o ____________alveol/o ____________bronch/o ____________bronchi/o ____________bronchiol/o ____________capn/o ____________Combining Form Meaning
45Review Sheet (cont’d) adenoid/o adenoids COMBINING FORMSadenoid/o adenoidsalveol/o alveolus; air sac; small sacbronch/o bronchial tubebronchi/o bronchial tubebronchiol/o bronchiolecapn/o carbon dioxideCombining Form Meaning
46Review Sheet (cont’d) coni/o ___________ cyan/o ___________ COMBINING FORMSconi/o ___________cyan/o ___________epiglott/o ___________laryng/o ___________lob/o ___________mediastin/o ___________Combining Form Meaning
47Review Sheet (cont’d) coni/o dust cyan/o blue epiglott/o epiglottis COMBINING FORMSconi/o dustcyan/o blueepiglott/o epiglottislaryng/o larynx (voice box)lob/o lobemediastin/o mediastinumCombining Form Meaning
48Review Sheet (cont’d) nas/o __________ orth/o __________ COMBINING FORMSnas/o __________orth/o __________ox/o __________pector/o __________pharyng/o __________phon/o __________Combining Form Meaning
49Review Sheet (cont’d) nas/o nose orth/o straight ox/o oxygen COMBINING FORMSnas/o noseorth/o straightox/o oxygenpector/o chestpharyng/o throat (pharynx)phon/o voice; soundCombining Form Meaning
50Review Sheet (cont’d) phren/o ___________ pleur/o ___________ COMBINING FORMSphren/o ___________pleur/o ___________pneum/o ___________pneumon/o ___________pulmon/o ___________rhin/o ___________Combining Form Meaning
51Review Sheet (cont’d) phren/o diaphragm; mind pleur/o pleura COMBINING FORMSphren/o diaphragm; mindpleur/o pleurapneum/o lung; air; gaspneumon/o lung; air; gaspulmon/o lungrhin/o noseCombining Form Meaning
52Review Sheet (cont’d) sinus/o ___________ spir/o ___________ COMBINING FORMSsinus/o ___________spir/o ___________tel/o ___________thorac/o ___________tonsill/o ___________trache/o ___________Combining Form Meaning
53Review Sheet (cont’d) sinus/o sinus spir/o to breathe tel/o complete COMBINING FORMSsinus/o sinusspir/o to breathetel/o completethorac/o chesttonsill/o tonsiltrache/o trachea (windpipe)Combining Form Meaning