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Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 1 The Language Of Medicine 9 th edition Davi-Ellen Chabner.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 1 The Language Of Medicine 9 th edition Davi-Ellen Chabner."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 1 The Language Of Medicine 9 th edition Davi-Ellen Chabner

2 Chapter 12 Respiratory System Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 2

3 3 Chapter Goals  Name the organs of the respiratory system and describe their location and function.  Identify various pathological conditions that affect the system.  Learn medical terms that pertain to respiration.

4 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 4 Chapter Goals (cont’d)  Describe important clinical procedures related to the respiratory system, and recognize relevant abbreviations.  Apply your new knowledge to understanding medical terms in their proper contexts, such as medical reports and records.

5 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 5 Chapter 12 Lesson 12.1

6 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 6 Introduction External respiration: Exchange of air in lung capillaries  oxygen inhaled into the air sacs of the lungs  immediately passes into capillaries  carbon dioxide passes from capillaries into air sacs, to be exhaled

7 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 7 Introduction (cont’d) Internal respiration: Exchange of gases in the cells  occurs simultaneously between cells and capillaries  oxygen passes out of the bloodstream into the tissues  carbon dioxide passes out of tissues back into the bloodstream to travel to the lungs

8 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 8 Respiratory Anatomy  Mediastinum: Middle of chest where trachea divides into two branches  Bronchi: Each leads to a separate lung  Lungs: Lobes are not mirror images  Hilum: Blood vessels, nerves, lymphatic tissue, and bronchial tubes enter and exit

9 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 9 Anatomy of Respiration

10 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 10 Anatomy of Respiration (cont’d)

11 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 11 Respiratory Structures Conduct air  Nose  Nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses  Pharynx  Larynx  Trachea Exchange gases  Bronchioles  Alveoli  Lung capillaries

12 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 12 Respiratory Flow Chart

13 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 13 Respiratory Flow Chart (cont’d)

14 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14 Vocabulary  adenoids  alveolus (alveoli)  apex of the lung  base of the lung  brochioles  bronchus (bronchi)  carbon dioxide

15 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 15 Vocabulary (cont’d) Vocabulary (cont’d)  cilia  diaphragm  epiglottis  expiration  glottis  hilum  inspiration  larynx

16 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 16 Vocabulary (cont’d) Vocabulary (cont’d)  lobe  mediastinum  nares  oxygen  palatine tonsil  paranasal sinus  parietal pleura

17 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 17 Vocabulary (cont’d)  pharynx  pleura  pleural cavity  pulmonary parenchyma  respiration  trachea  visceral pleura

18 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 18 QUICK QUIZ: QUICK QUIZ: 1. What is the tip or uppermost portion of the lung? A.base B.lobe C.apex D.nares

19 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 19 Combining Forms and Terminology  adenoid/oadenoids  alveol/oalveolus, air sac  bronch/obronchial tube  bronchi/obronchus  bronchiol/o bronchiole, small bronchus  capn/ocarbon dioxide Combining FormMeaning

20 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 20 Combining Forms and Terminology (cont’d)  coni/odust  cyan/oblue  epiglott/oepiglottis  laryng/olarynx, voice box  lob/olobe of the lung  mediastin/omediastinum Combining FormMeaning

21 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 21 Combining Forms and Terminology (cont’d)  nas/onose  orth/ostraight, upright  ox/ooxygen  pector/ochest  pharyng/opharynx, throat  phon/ovoice Combining FormMeaning

22 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 22 Combining Forms and Terminology (cont’d)  phren/odiaphragm  pleur/opleura  pneum/oair, lung  pneumon/olung  pulmon/olung  rhin/onose Combining FormMeaning

23 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 23 Combining Forms and Terminology (cont’d)  sinus/osinus cavity  spir/obreathing  tel/ocomplete  thorac/ochest  tonsill/otonsils  trache/otrachea, windpipe Combining FormMeaning

24 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 24 Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Terminology SUFFIXES -ema condition -osmiasmell -pneabreathing -ptysisspitting -sphyxiapulse -thoraxpleural cavity, chest SuffixMeaning

25 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 25 Chapter 12 Lesson 12.2

26 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 26 Diagnostic Terms  auscultation  percussion  pleural rub  rale (crackle)  rhonchus  sputum  stridor  wheeze

27 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 27 Pathology Upper Respiratory Disorders  croup  diphtheria  epistaxis  pertussis

28 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 28 Pathology (cont’d) Bronchial Tube Disorders  asthma  bronchiectasis  chronic bronchitis  cystic fibrosis

29 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 29 Pathology (cont’d) Lung Disorders  atelectasis  emphysema  lung cancer  pneumoconiosis  pneumonia  pulmonary abscess  pulmonary edema  pulmonary embolism (PE)  pulmonary fibrosis  sarcoidosis  tuberculosis (TB)

30 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 30 Pathology Lung Disorders Atelectasis Two forms Two forms Proximal obstruction of distal airways Proximal obstruction of distal airways Accumulations of fluid, blood, or air in pleural cavity Accumulations of fluid, blood, or air in pleural cavity

31 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 31 Pathology Pleural Disorders  mesothelioma  pleural effusion  pleurisy (pleuritis)  pneumothorax

32 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 32 Pathology Pleural Disorders Pneumothorax: Air gathers in the pleural cavity

33 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 33 Study Section Study Section  anthracosis  asbestosis  bacilli  chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)  cor pulmonale  exudate  hydrothorax  infiltrate  palliative  paroxysmal  pulmonary infarction  purulent  silicosis

34 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 34 Chapter 12 Lesson 12.3

35 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 35 Clinical Procedures  X-rays  chest x-ray (CXR)  computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest  pulmonary angiography

36 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 36 Clinical Procedures (cont’d) X-rays: Radiographic imaging

37 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 37 Clinical Procedures (cont’d) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): Magnetic waves create images

38 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 38 Clinical Procedures (cont’d)  Radioactive Tests  Positron emission tomography (PET) scan of the lung:  Ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scan: inhalation of radioactive gas for imaging, followed by injection of different radioactive material for imaging

39 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 39 Clinical Procedures (cont’d) Bronchioscopy: Fiberoptic or rigid endoscope inserted into the bronchial tubes for diagnosis, biopsy, or collection of specimens

40 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 40 Clinical Procedures (cont’d) Endotracheal intubation: placement of tube from mouth to trachea to establish airway

41 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 41 Clinical Procedures (cont’d)  laryngoscopy  lung biopsy  mediastinoscopy  pulmonary function tests (PFTs)  thoracotomy  thorascopy  tracheostomy  tuberculin test  tube thoracostomy

42 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 42 Clinical Procedures (cont’d) Thoracentesis: surgical puncture to remove fluid from pleural space remove fluid from pleural space

43 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 43 Clinical Procedures (cont’d) Tracheostomy: Surgical creation of opening into the trachea through the neck the neck

44 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 44 Review Sheet COMBINING FORMS adenoid/o ____________ alveol/o____________ bronch/o____________ bronchi/o____________ bronchiol/o ____________ capn/o____________ Combining FormMeaning

45 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 45 Review Sheet (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS  adenoid/o adenoids  alveol/o alveolus; air sac; small sac  bronch/o bronchial tube  bronchi/o bronchial tube  bronchiol/o bronchiole  capn/o carbon dioxide Combining Form Meaning

46 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 46 COMBINING FORMS coni/o___________ cyan/o___________ epiglott/o___________ laryng/o___________ lob/o___________ mediastin/o___________ Combining Form Meaning Review Sheet (cont’d)

47 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 47 COMBINING FORMS  coni/o dust  cyan/o blue  epiglott/o epiglottis  laryng/o larynx (voice box)  lob/o lobe  mediastin/o mediastinum Combining Form Meaning Review Sheet (cont’d)

48 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 48 COMBINING FORMS nas/o __________ orth/o __________ ox/o __________ pector/o__________ pharyng/o __________ phon/o__________ Combining Form Meaning Review Sheet (cont’d)

49 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 49 COMBINING FORMS  nas/o nose  orth/o straight  ox/o oxygen  pector/o chest  pharyng/o throat (pharynx)  phon/o voice; sound Combining Form Meaning Review Sheet (cont’d)

50 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 50 COMBINING FORMS phren/o___________ pleur/o___________ pneum/o___________ pneumon/o ___________ pulmon/o___________ rhin/o ___________ Combining Form Meaning Review Sheet (cont’d)

51 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 51 COMBINING FORMS  phren/o diaphragm; mind  pleur/o pleura  pneum/o lung; air; gas  pneumon/o lung; air; gas  pulmon/o lung  rhin/o nose Combining Form Meaning Review Sheet (cont’d)

52 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 52 COMBINING FORMS sinus/o___________ spir/o ___________ tel/o ___________ thorac/o___________ tonsill/o___________ trache/o___________ Combining Form Meaning Review Sheet (cont’d)

53 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 53 COMBINING FORMS  sinus/o sinus  spir/o to breathe  tel/o complete  thorac/o chest  tonsill/o tonsil  trache/o trachea (windpipe) Combining Form Meaning Review Sheet (cont’d)

54 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 54 SUFFIXES -ema ___________ -osmia ___________ -pnea ___________ -ptysis ___________ -sphyxia ___________ -thorax ___________ Suffix Meaning Review Sheer (cont’d)

55 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 55 SUFFIXES  -ema condition  -osmia smell  -pnea breathing  -ptysis spitting  -sphyxia pulse  -thorax chest; pleural cavity Suffix Meaning Review Sheet (cont’d)


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