Medical Terminology Do page one of your medical terminology worksheet. Take a break when you are finished.
Prefixes – a word element at the beginning of the word to alter its meaning. A prefix can not stand alone; it must be combined with a root word A-, an-Without or notIntro-Into; withinAb-Away from Leuk-WhiteAd-TowardMacro-Large Ante-Before, forwardMal-Bad, illness, disease Anti-Against Mega-LargeAuto-SelfMicro-Small Bi-Double, twoMono-One, singleCircum-Around Neo-NewContra-Against, oppositeNon-Not Para-AbnormalPer-By, throughPeri-Around Poly-Many, muchEcto-Outer, outsidePost-After, behind En-In, into, withinEndo-Inner, insidePro-Before, in front Epi-Over, onRe-AgainEryth-Red Retro-BackwardEx-Out, out ofSemi-Half Hemi-HalfSub-UnderHyper-Excessive Super- Above, overHypo-Under, decreasedSupra-Above, over In-In, into, within, notTrans-AcrossInter-Between Uni-OneIntra-Within
Root words – provide the fundamental meaning of a term. Combinations of rootwords, prefixes and suffixes form medical and scientific terms. A vowel, called a combining vowel, often is added when two root words are combined or a suffix is added to a root word; the combining vowel is usually an o or an i. Abdomin (o)AbdomenNeur (o)NerveAden (o)Gland Ocul (o)EyeAdren (o) glandOrth (o)Straight, normal Angi (o)VesselOste (o)BoneArterio (o)Artery Ot (o)EarArthr (o)JointPed (o)Child, foot Broncho (o)bronchiCardi (o)HeartPhleb (o)Vein Cephal (o)HeadPnea BreathingChondr (o)Cartilage Pneum (0)Lung, air, gasCol (o)ColonProct (o)Rectum Cost (o)RibPsych (o)MindCrani (o)Skull Pulm (o)LungCyan (o) BluePy (o)Pus Cyst (o)Bladder, cystRect (o)RectumCyt (o)Cell Rhin (o)NoseDerma SkinSten (o)Narrow, constriction Duoden (o)DuodenumStran (o)SternumEncephal (o)Brain Stomat (o)MouthEnter (o)IntestinesTherm (o)Heat Fibro (o)Fiber, fibrousThorac (o)ChestGastr (o)Stomach Thromb (o)Clot, thrombushyr (o)ThyroidToxic (o)Poison, poisonous Hepat (o)LiverTrache (o)TracheaHydr (o)Water Hyster (o)UterusIle (o), ili (o)IleumUrin (o)Urine Uter (o)UterusMamm (o)BreastVas (o)Blood vessel, vas deferens My (o)MuscleVen (o)VeinMyel (o)Spinal cord, bone marrow Vertebr (o)Spine, vertebraeNephr (o)kidney
Suffixes – a word element placed at the end of a root word to alter the meaning of the word. Suffixes, like prefixes, can not stand alone, they must accompany a root word. The suffix should be the starting point when interpreting medical terms. -algia=Pain-megaly=Enlargement -oma=Tumor-cele=Hernia -osis=Condition-cyte=Cell -pathy=Disease-ectasis=Dilation -phasia=Speaking-plegia=Paralysis -gram=Record-graphy=Making a record iasis=Condition of-scope=Examination instrument -ism=Condition-scopy=Examination using a scope -it is=Inflammation-logy=Study of -lysis=Destruction of-uria=Condition of the urine
Abbreviations – shortened form of words or phrases. A. Used as written communication to save time and space B. When using abbreviations, provide an abbreviation key Abd=AbdomenIBW=Ideal Body Weight Ad lib=As desiredid=The same lig=ligamentalt noct=Alternate nights AM=Morningmeds=Midline ML=Medicationnsn=Normal Approx=ApproximatelyNA=Nonapplicable
Terms Related to Dx and Dz Indication – a condition for which an approach would be beneficial for health enhancement, treatment of a particular condition, or support of a treatment modality other than massage Contraindication – a condition or factor that may make an approach harmful. Contraindications may be subdivided by severity: 1. General avoidance of application – do not massage 2. Regional avoidance of application – avoid a particular area 3. Application with caution – requires supervision from medical or supervising personnel – massage but carefully select types of methods to be used, duration of application, frequency and intensity of massage.
Terminology of Location and Position Directional Terms – used to describe the way one body part relates to another 1. Superior / cranial or cephalad 2. Inferior / caudal 3. Anterior / ventral 4. Posterior / dorsal 5. Proximal 6. Distal 7. Lateral 8. Medial
Terminology of Location and Position B. Anatomic Planes 1. Transverse plane 2. Frontal/coronal plane 3. Medial/sagittal plane
Terminology of Location and Position C. Positional Terms 1. Anatomic position – stance of the body when erect, arms hanging at the sides, palms facing forward 2. Erect position – the body in a standing position 3. Supine position – the body lying in a horizontal position with face up 4. Prone position – the body in horizontal position with face down 5. Laterally recumbent position – the body lying horizontally on either the right or left side
Medical Terminology Tissue – a collection of similar cells acting together to form a particicular function Epithelial – closely packed single or stratified layer of cells (skin) covering the body and lining its cavities with the exception of blood and lymph vessels Connective – tissue that supports and binds other tissue and parts Muscular – tissues that are contractible – 3 types: cardiac, smooth muscle and skeletal Nervous – CNS – brain and spinal cord PNS – cranial and spinal nerves ANS – nerves in thoracic, lumbar, cranial and sacral segments of the Spinal cord
Medical Terminology Histo - tissue Histology – study of microscopic anatomic and physiologic characteristics of tissues and cells therein Organ – structural part of a system of the body that is composed of tissue and cells that enable it to perform a particular function Bone – a dense, hard and somewhat flexible connective tissue Os, ossa, oste, osteo – having to do with bone
Medical Terminology Tendon – any one of the white, glistening bands of dense, fibrous connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone Ligament – shiny white flexible bands of fibrous tissue binding joints together and connecting articular bones and cartilages to facilitate movement Cartilage – a nonvascular dense supporting connective tissue composed of ground substance Hyaline cartilage – a type of elastic connective tissue composed of Specialized cells in a translucent, pearly blue matrix covering articulating ends of bones Fibrocartilage – Cartilage that consists of a dense matrix of white collagenous fibers.
Medical Terminology Joint – any one of the articulations between bones Articulation – movements of joints Bursae – a fibrous sac between certain tendons and the bones beneath them. The bursae acts as a small cushion that allows the tendons to move over the bone as it contracts and releases Osteoblasts – a bone forming cell during early development of the skeleton, differentiates from a fibroblast to function in the formation of bone tissue Osteoclasts – a large type of multinucleated bone cell with a large amount of acidophilic cytoplasm that functions to absorb and remove osseos tissue
Medical Terminology Manubrium – most anterior of the 3 bones of the sternum Xiphoid Process – the smallest of 3 parts of the sternum Malleolus – a rounded bony process such as each side of the ankle Process – a natural growth that projects from a bone Crest – a narrow, elongated elevation
Medical Terminology Trochanter – one of the two bony projections on the proximal end of the femur that serve as a part of the attachment for various muscles Tuberosity – an elevation or protuberance especially of the bone Acute – beginning abruptly with marked intensity or sharpness, then subsiding after a relatively short period of time Ambulatory – able to walk Anomoly – deviation from what is regarded as normal
Medical Terminology Flaccid – weak, soft and flabby; lacking muscle tone Hyperkinisia – too much erratic or rhythmic movement Hypertonicity – excessive tone, tension, activity Insertion – the place where a muscle attaches to a bone for movement Origin – the more fixed or proximal attachment of two points of a muscle
Medical Terminology Hyperemia – an excess of blood in a part of the body, caused by increased blood flow, as in an inflammatory response, local relaxation of arterioles or obstruction of blood flow from an area. Skin overlaying a hyperemic area usually becomes reddened and warm Spastic – pertaining to spasms or other uncontrolled contractions of skeletal muscles Myalgia – diffuse muscle pain, usually accompanied by malaise Spasm – an involuntary muscle contraction of sudden onset such as habit spasms, hiccups, stuttering or a tic Fracture – to break - a traumatic injury to the bone in which the continuity of the bone tissue is broken
Medical Terminology Osteoarthritis – joint inflammation - a form of arthritis in which one or many joints undergo degenerative changes Osteochondritis – bone cartilage inflammation. A disease of epiphyses or bone forming centers of the skeleton that begins with necrosis and tissue fragmentation and is followed by repair and regeneration Osteochondrosis – a disease of the epiphyses, or bone- forming centers of the skeleton, that begins with necrosis and tissue fragmentation and is followed by repair and regeneration. Osteoporosis – a disorder characterized by abnormal loss of bone density and deterioration of bone tissue, with an increased fracture risk. Spondylitis – an inflammation of any of the vertebrae, usually characterized by stiffness and pain.
Medical Terminology Atrophy – a wasting or decrease in size or physiologic activity of a part of the body because of disease or other influence. Benign – noncancerous and therefore not an immediate threat. Chronic – persisting for a long period, often for the remainder of a persons lifetime. Clinical – pertaining to a clinic, to direct bedside medical or nursing care, to materials or equipment used in the care of a sick person. Diagnosis – identification of a disease or condition by a scientific evaluation of physical signs, symptoms, history, laboratory test results, and procedures.
Medical Terminology Local – pertaining to a small circumscribed area of the body Malignant – tending to become worse and to cause death. Metastatic – the process by which tumor cells spread to distant parts of the body. Prognosis – a prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on the condition of the person and the usual course of the disease as observed in similar situations. Sign – an objective finding as perceived by an examiner, such as fever, rash.
Medical Terminology Symptom – a subjective indication of a disease or a change in condition as perceived by the patient. Syndrome – a complex of signs and symptoms resulting from a common cause or appearing, in combination, to present a clinical picture of a disease or inherited abnormality. Systemic – pertaining to the whole body rather than to a localized area or region of the body. Bacterial – of or pertaining to bacteria. Cancer – a neoplasm characterized by the uncontrolled growth of anaplastic cells that tend to invade surrounding tissue and to metastasize to distant body parts.
Medical Terminology Congenital – present at birth, as in anomaly or defect Degenerative – pertaining to or involving degeneration or change to a lower or dysfunctional form. Epidemic – affecting a significantly large number of people at the same time. Exacerbation – an increase in the seriousness of a disease or disorderas marked by greater intensity in the signs and symptoms of the patient being treated Idiopathic – without a know cause
Medical Terminology Infectious – the invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms that reproduce and multiply, causing disease by local cellular injury, secretion of a toxin or antigen/antibody reaction in the host. Trauma – physical injury caused by violent or disruptive action or by the introduction into the body of a toxic substance Viral – of or pertaining to a virus Aponeurosis – a strong flat sheet of fibrous connective tissue that serves as a tendon to attach muscles to bone or as fascia to bind muscles together or to other tissues at their origin or insertion. Belly – the fleshy central bulging portion of a muscle
Medical Terminology Clonus – an abnormal pattern of neuromuscular activity, characterized by rapidly alternating involuntary contraction and relaxation of skeletal muscle Contracture – a abnormal, usually permanent condition of a joint, characterized by flexion and fixation Cramp – a spasmodic and often painful contraction of one or more muscles Fascia – the fibrous connective membrane of the body that can be separated from other structures, such as tendon.s