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American History 9 Mr. Feeney Henry David Thoreau Ralph Waldo Emerson.

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Presentation on theme: "American History 9 Mr. Feeney Henry David Thoreau Ralph Waldo Emerson."— Presentation transcript:

1 American History 9 Mr. Feeney Henry David Thoreau Ralph Waldo Emerson

2  Charles Grandison Finney  Evangelical Speaker of the early 19 th century  Traveled across the country on horseback to deliver his religious messages to anxious crowds in towns. Second Great Awakening  Preachers rejected the 18 th Century beliefs of Calvinism, and the belief in predetermined salvation or damnation. They believed that they were responsible for their own destinies.

3  Jacksonian Democracy  The influence of the Jacksonian Democracy views of putting the “Common Man” first, was also reciprocated by the new Evangelical preachers. Revivalism Revivalism: an emotional meeting designed to awaken religious faith through impassioned preaching and prayer.

4  Revivalism  A revival may last between four and five days.  Studied the bible and examined their souls.  Set “religious fires” during the evening sessions.  Majority of revivals took place in Rochester, NY.  Finney led the “Rochester Revivals” and earned the nickname, “ Father of Modern Revivalism.”  1800: 1 in 15 Americans belonged to a church.  1850: 1 in 6 Americans belonged to a church.

5  Baptist and Methodist Church  Christians believed that all people belonged to the same god, and allowed African-Americans to attend camp-meetings of the Baptist/Methodist churches.  Southern slaves were allowed to attend the same church as their owners, but were segregated and had to sit in the back pews of the church.  The slaves viewed Christianity and its messages as a promise for their future freedom from slavery.

6  Ralph Waldo Emerson  New England writer/ leader of Transcendentalism  Transcendentalism: a philosophical and literary movement that emphasized living a simple life and celebrated the truth found in nature and in personal emotion and imagination. (The Americans, 1997)  A focus on optimism, freedom, and self-reliance.  Henry David Thoreau was inspired by Emerson, and decided to create an idea based on self-reliance.

7  Henry David Thoreau  A New England writer/inventor of Civil Disobedience  Believed in the ideal of an “individual conscience.” Civil Disobedience  Thoreau prompted his followers to disobey laws that they felt were unjust. They should peacefully disobey the laws, without using force or violence.  Thoreau opposed slavery and the war with Mexico, so he didn’t pay taxes, but then was sent to prison!

8  Unitarianism  Emphasis on reason and conscience were the “paths to perfection,” rather than in emotions.  Wealthy and educated people believed in a gradual conversion process in the New England region. William Ellery Channing  Unitarian leader, he believed that Christianity was “the perfection of human nature, the elevation of men to nobler beings.” (The Americans, 1997.)

9  Utopian Communities  Desire to create a “perfect” community.  Shared common goals of self-sufficiency.  New Harmony, IN and Brook Farm in Boston, MA.  They only lasted a few years before disbandment. Shaker Communities  Ann Lee taught to not marry or have kids, share all goods, pacifism, do not have children (only adopt).  Located in New York, New England, and frontier.

10  School Policy  No uniform school policy prior to the 1830’s.  Only MA and VT had Compulsory School Attendance Laws before the Civil War. (required attendance)  The 1830’s prompted an increase in taxes to support new public school systems, especially in PA where they instituted a new law that would increase taxes for the well-to-do taxpayers of Pennsylvania.  In 1834, 42% of all children attended public school.

11  Horace Mann  Public School Reform Leader in Massachusetts  “If we do not prepare children to become good citizens, …if we do not enrich their minds, with knowledge, then our republic must go down in destruction, as others have gone before it.” (The Americans, 1997)  1837: He became the first Secretary of Education in MA, and established teacher-training programs, curriculum reform, and doubled school budgets.

12  Prison and Asylum Problems  1831, French writer, Alexis de Tocqueville observed the US penitentiary system and reported the poor treatment of prisoners, abused and isolated. Dorothea Dix In 1843, Dorothea Dix researched and submitted a report to the MA legislature about the poor prison conditions, and help pass a law to improve prisons.  In 1845/1852 she helped open hospitals for the mentally ill in several southern states in the US.

13  1. How was the Second Great Awakening similar to the Jacksonian Democracy? Compare and contrast.  2. What is the significance of Henry David Thoreau’s idea of Civil Disobedience? Give one example of when Civil Disobedience was used after Thoreau’s death.  3. In what ways was education reformed in the 1830’s and how have the reforms affected education today?

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