Presentation on theme: "The Civil War Ch 11 Notes. Remember… Confederate capital: Richmond, VA Border States: MD, MO, KY, DE All slave states DE had the fewest, stayed with."— Presentation transcript:
The Civil War Ch 11 Notes
Remember… Confederate capital: Richmond, VA Border States: MD, MO, KY, DE All slave states DE had the fewest, stayed with the Union MD had more but stayed with Union even with much pro-Confederate support KY divided in opinion, people fought on both sides but the state gov remained under Union control MO had fighting about which side to take for 2 years but remained with the Union Fort Sumter: April 12, 1861
1 st Battle of Bull Run/1 st Manassas North: named battles after rivers, mountains, etc… South: named battles after nearby towns McDowell in charge of Union army 7/16/1861: McDowell took troops into southern territory Up against Beauregard Many spectators followed the troops to watch 7/21/61: McDowell attacked
Battle Begins 1 st the Union was winning Then Gen. Thomas Jackson got there with his troops to reinforce the Conf troops “Stonewall Jackson” nicknamed that because he never gave up during battle Union advance stopped and eventually retreated Retreated all the way the to Washington, DC Conf could have attacked DC but they were also inexperienced and exhausted so they did not
Lessons Learned Both sides need more training Battles are worse than expected and civilians do not belong there This will not be a “quick” war (originally thought it would be over by Christmas) Both sides need more preparations McDowell was replaced by George McClellan
Strengths of Both Sides North More railroad mileage More people to serve in the military and work in the factories Established government with a strong federal gov More industrial Balanced economy South Better military leadership Better military training Home-field advantage
Strategies North “Anaconda Plan”: surround enemy and squeeze it to death Naval blockade of the southern coastline Take control of the Mississippi River and cut the Confederacy in 2 Capture Richmond, the Confederate capital South War of attrition Battle to wear down the enemy Gain a foreign ally (especially hoped for Britain) Wait and defend their territory
Tactics and Technology Old All lined up to march into battle Concentrate forces, assault a position and drive enemy away Cannons and muskets (not very accurate) Long time to re-load weapons New Guerilla warfare (surprise attacks) Bullet shaped ammo not musket balls Fighting from further away from enemy Rifling used on inside of gun barrels Heavy artillery with rifled barrels, shells, and canister
War in the West Goal: control the Mississippi River Targets: AK, LA, MS, and TN Union Gen. Ulysses S. Grant Map p. 385 Feb Grant began to move south down the TN River Objective: take Fort Henry and Fort Donelson
Union Victories in the West 2/6/1862: Grant attacked Fort Henry and forced it’s surrender Then marched troops to Fort Donelson 3 days of fighting until the fort surrendered Grant’s nickname: “Unconditional Surrender Grant” Grant continued south along the TN River to threaten AL and MS
March 1862 Conf Gen Johnston had his troops getting ready to fight Grant in MS Grant stopped in TN to wait for Gen. Buell and more troops before moving into MS Johnston was aware of these happenings
April 6, 1862 Gen Johnston attacks Grant by surprise Called the Battle of Shiloh At the end of the first day it looked like a Confederate victory Johnston even sent a letter to Davis saying so Buell got there with reinforcements for Grant and the next day the Union troops attacked Johnston’s by surprise Battled ended up a Union victory Very high casualties (some called Grant “the Butcher”) Union: 13,000 Confederate: 11, 000
Also in the West Admiral David Farragut was moving north on the Mississippi River Late April 1862: captured New Orleans Continued north to Baton Rouge, LA and Natchez, MS June 6, 1862 seized Memphis, TN There were only 2 more main ports to capture before the Union held the MS River (took about a year)
Meanwhile in the East Confederates created an ironclad ship Under Union control it was the “Merrimack” but the Conf renamed it the “Virginia” Union built the “Monitor” an iron ship March 9, 1862: Merrimack and Monitor faced off Neither was able to do much damage but the Merrimack withdrew for repairs Union called this a victory Merrimack was sunk on purpose by the South later Monitor sunk in a storm
Peninsular Campaign 2 nd attempt to capture Richmond (map p 386) May 1862: McClellan was in charge of Union troops Peninsula SE of Richmond Plan was to move up the peninsula and take Richmond At Yorktown they ran into Conf troops and McClellan decided to wait
Battle of the Seven Pines Part of Peninsular Campaign May, 1862 Union Victory Very heavy casualties on both sides Conf commander wounded so Robert E. Lee took over in June Conf Gen Jackson took some troops and pretended to prepare to attack DC Lincoln refused to send additional troops to McClellan to protect DC
Seven Days Battle Jackson rejoined Lee’s troops outside of Richmond In late June, 1862 Combined Confederate forces attacked McClellan’s weakened troops McClellan retreated Confederate victory Casualties: 20,000 Union and 16,000 Confederate
Results Lincoln removed McClellan and chose Gen John Pope to lead the Union Army of the Potomac (army the protected DC that McClellan had led) Lincoln ordered McClellan to return to DC
Second Battle of Bull Run/2 nd Manassas Lee divided his army again Late August Lee attacked Pope’s forces Jackson’s forces attacked after surrounding Pope Confederate victory Lincoln was very upset Removed Pope and returned McClellan
South Changes Strategy South shifted from defense to offense Lee pushed forces into MD northwest of DC McClellan’s troops found some plans and met him just after Lee crossed into MD Major and crucial battle took place near village of Sharpsburg, MD at Antietam Creek
Antietam Union troops outnumbered Conf troops Night of Sept 17, 1862 more than 22,000 men lay dead or wounded Single bloodiest day of the Civil War Casualties about even on both sides but McClellan had far more fresh troops available than Lee McClellan did nothing, instead of attacking at dawn, and let Lee’s army walk away Lincoln fired McClellan because though he won, he let a decisive victory slip away
Politics of the Civil War
Politics of the South Confederacy: loose union of states with a weaker federal government than state governments Created a constitution: similar to that of the Union – 2 main differences 1. Slavery is legal 2. More States Rights
Mobilization Efforts to Use Limited Resources Efficiently Confederate congress passed laws to increase support of warfare. Farmers gave 10% of crops to the army The army could take male slaves for military service and the owner was paid for the use of his slave April 1862 – Draft Passed (Conscription) All white men serve 3 years Age raised to 45 after Antietam Later increased to 50
More Confederate laws Government would determine what and how much to produce. Wool - Cotton - Leather Seized control of railroads from private owners Income tax created to raise money for the war effort Had to do the best they could with fewer resources.
Impact of States’ Rights Not all mobilization efforts were successful Harmed the war effort in many ways Example: people avoided the draft South sought help form Europe (Britain and France) Failed to be recognized by either of them Privateers: 11 British built ships that fought against the Union during the war
Politics of the North Much effort was given to keep public support of the war high Tensions increased with Great Britain The Trent: 1861 – President Davis sent two people to gain recognition from the British (boarded the Trent) Union removed the 2 men from the ship England threatened war if the Union didn’t release the men Lincoln ordered the men released “One war at a time”
Republicans in Control of Congress Pacific Railroad Act (July 1862): supplied money for the building of the continental railroad Homestead Act (1862): free government land in the west to people who were willing to live there Government raised the tariff rate Passed the first federal income tax (1861) Internal Revenue Act of 1862: taxed medicine, tobacco, and newspapers Nearly all taxes ended at the end of the war.
Republicans (continued) Reformed the banking system 1862 – Congress established a new currency Greenbacks Value was established by the government - Fiat
Northern Opposition to the War Copperheads: Northern Democrats who sympathized with the South and opposed the war Draft dodgers and draft riots happened throughout the North
Keeping Control in the Border States Delaware – Stayed Loyal Maryland – If Maryland would leave the Union, Washington D.C. would be in Confederate territory. Missouri – Supported action to overthrow a pro-Confederate state government. Kentucky – Martial Law In some areas of the Union, Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus: (can be held in jail without being charged with a crime)
Emancipation and the War Some people began to question if restoring the Union was enough (slavery became a question again) Lincoln was hesitant at first to end slavery: He didn’t feel that it was a part of his job. Eventually he used ending slavery as another method to end the war (a 4 th strategy to hurt the South and bring the war to an end)
The Emancipation Proclamation Fall of 1862 after the battle of Antietam. Lincoln issued the proclamation on January 1 st, 1963 Freed slaves in the states that had seceded Very controversial, but it showed a shift in the mentality of the war Had little impact on slavery since the areas affected considered themselves to be outside of the Union Made sure that European countries did not get involved on the South’s side (they no longer supported slavery)
What to do with slaves when the Union troops encountered them? Some union commanders give them back to their slave owners when returning other possessions of theirs. Others felt that they were contraband: it is generally accepted that during a war, property that is captured becomes the property of the enemy government. With this idea, many slaves were freed.
African Americans in the Army In the North Congress passed a law allowing African Americans to serve in the army in July of 1862 Many joined after the Emancipation Proclamation On warships, black and white men served together As soldiers they served in separate regiments The African American regiments had white commanding officers. Until June of 1864, African Americans were paid less than white soldiers.
The Hardships of War Dramatic changes in the lives of people in the North and South Wives and mothers lived in fear Both sides faced labor shortages, inflation, and other economic problems By 1863 it was clear that the North was better prepared to meet the needs of the war than the South.
The Southern Economy During the War Food shortages (food production declined as the war continued) Lack of men due to the draft: Women ran the farms and were in charge of the slaves Food riots erupted in southern cities (most were led by women) because of the lack of food Inflation: Shortages and a lack of goods, plus profiteers (those who bought up a bunch of goods and waited to sell until the price got really high) Problems at home led to many desertions in the army
The Northern Economy During the War Industries heavily dependent on cotton were hurt Most Northern industries boomed Especially war related industries Women filled critical roles in factories as more men went off to war. Prices rose faster than wages during the war Some northern profiteers: selling poor quality equipment to the military at high prices
Prison Camps Andersonville was the most notorious southern camp in Georgia Many scattered throughout the North and South In most cases officers were treated better than other prisoners
Medical Care ¼ of the soldiers didn’t survive the war, most from disease and not battle wounds Poor nutrition and contaminated food led to dysentery and typhoid fever Malaria and pneumonia were also killers Union soldier was three times more likely to die in camp or in a hospital than he was to be killed on the battlefield One in five Union soldiers who was wounded in battle later died from their wounds
Women and the War Effort Women on both sides helped to care for the wounded Clara Barton “The angel of the battlefield” Later began the Red Cross Dorothea Dix organized the Union Army’s nursing Corps 4,000 women served as nurses for the Union
Sanitation Non-existent in most camps Garbage and rotting food littered on the ground Human waste and manure polluted the water Epidemics of contagious diseases swept through camps. At times only half of the troops in a regiment were available Unites States Sanitary Commission: Created in June of 1861, attempted to combat these problems Inspected army hospitals and camps Organized cleanups and provided advice about controlling infection, disease prevention, sewage disposal, and nutrition About twice as many soldiers on each side died from disease as from enemy gunfire
The Tide of War Turns
Victories for General Lee Battle of Fredericksburg (December 13, 1862) The Union’s McClellan delayed after Antietam and was replaced with Ambrose Burnside - Burnside marched directly towards Richmond. Lee’s 79,000 met Burnside’s 122,000 at Fredericksburg, Virginia on Rappahannock River. Burnside crossed the river without cover and wave after wave of Union troops were met with artillery fire 13,000 Union Casualties to only 5,000 Confederate Burnside asks to be relieved of his command
Battle of Chancellorsville (May 1, 1863) Lincoln appoints Gen. Joseph Hooker Plans to move around Fredericksburg secretly and attack Lee from behind his defenses. His forces were discovered by General J.E.B. Stuart. (a cavalry commander) Lee sends troops after Hooker After a brief skirmish, Lee’s forces under Jackson move into the thick woods and separate, attacking from several angles. Jackson mistakenly shot that night in the dark, dies on May 10 th. Confederate army wins complete victory
Build-up to Gettysburg Lowest point in the war for the Union Major losses at Fredericksburg & Chancellorsville Rumors of Lincoln’s resignation / talk of peace Lee Moves North Seeking renewed resources / Victory in Union territory Hear word of shoe supply in Gettysburg PA - Skirmish with Union cavalry turned into the greatest battle ever fought in North America
Gettysburg Day 1 – July 1 st 1863 Both Union and Confederate troops rush to the site of the skirmish General George Meade arrives – only in command less than one week Fighting occurs between two ridges Confederates are able to push Union troops back to the hills. – Fighting continued throughout the day. A confident Lee proposed (against advisement) to attack the Union troops early the next morning.
Gettysburg Day 2 – July 2nd Gen. James Longstreet Not ready to attack with Union troops until 4pm! Gives Meade a chance to gather reinforcements and attack. Little Round Top! Vulnerable hill – strategically important Could be used for cannon fire Union troops run out of ammo, defend the hill with bayonet charge Save Union from defeat
Gettysburg Day 3 – July 3rd Begins with brief Confederate attack on north Union line. Battlefield falls silent after Early Afternoon – 150 cannons fire to begin Lee’s infantry charge against the Union’s center. Marches 15,000 troops Under General Pickett Only half of the troops return to Confederate lines after ½ hour of battle
Conclusion of Gettysburg Pickett’s charge ended the bloodiest battle of the Civil War Union Army 23,000 of 85,000 suffer casualties Confederate Army 28,000 of 75,000 suffer casualties Lee had lost 1/3 of his army for the second time Confederates retreat back to Virginia.
Vicksburg, Mississippi The last point left in Confederate control on the Mississippi R. Strategically safe. On a hilltop Surrounded by swampland Only one area of dry land that could be used to attack
Ulysses S. Grant commands Union troops. Made several previous attempts to bypass or attack the city. Moves far south and crosses the river, then attacks Mississippi’s capital at Jackson. Draws Confederate forces (under Pemberton) out of Vicksburg. Clash again at Champion’s Hill Confederates retreat to Vicksburg
SIEGE: A tactic in which an enemy is surrounded and starved in order to make it surrender. Grant uses Siege tactics Artillery fires 2,800 Shells per day for over a month. Residents dug caves in hillsides to hide from the artillery fire. On July 4 th, 1863 Pemberton surrenders the Confederate troops. Why July 4 th ? Thought he would have the best chance at negotiating the terms of surrender.
The Importance of 1863 Turning point of the war! Control of the Mississippi Confederacy cut in two Lee’s army runs out of reinforcements, has to retreat to Virginia. Never again threatens Union soil.
The Gettysburg Address Delivered on November 19 th of 1863 A ceremony held at Gettysburg, was designed to honor Union soldiers who had died there in battle. 15,000 were in attendance. The speech only lasted 2 minutes. Initially ignored because of its shortness, the address later became one of the most popular speeches in American History.
Chapter 11, Section 4 Devastation and a New Freedom
A Change of Attitude The Confederate capital at Richmond, VA has a new feeling about its streets. Many cities set fire by Union troops, but the Confederates set Richmond ablaze on their own. Many cities set fire by Union troops, but the Confederates set Richmond ablaze on their own. African Americans welcome the arriving Union army with open arms. African Americans welcome the arriving Union army with open arms.
A More Aggressive Gen. Grant Confederates hope to hold defenses until Union election in November of 1864 Confederates hope to hold defenses until Union election in November of 1864 Feel that another president may replace Lincoln and grant independence to the south. Lincoln puts Grant in charge of the Union army and brings him east to fight Lee Lincoln puts Grant in charge of the Union army and brings him east to fight Lee Gen. William Sherman is placed in the west Both plan to beat the Confederates through greater population and industry. Grant plans to charge directly to Richmond, knowing that Lee will have to fight to defend the capital Grant plans to charge directly to Richmond, knowing that Lee will have to fight to defend the capital
Battle of the Wilderness 2 Day battle that begins on May 5 th This is Lee’s first attempt to stop Grant’s march. This is Lee’s first attempt to stop Grant’s march. Fought in the same location as the Battle of Chancellorsville. Fought in a dense forest…… The woods caught on fire!!!! Confusion occurs because of this Confusion occurs because of this Longstreet is shot only a short distance from where Jackson was shot the year before Grant loses many men but refuses to retreat Grant loses many men but refuses to retreat He marches around the Confederates and continues towards Richmond
Spotsylvania and Cold Harbor May 8 th - Spotsylvania Confederates catch up to the Union forces and a 2 week battle follows. Confederates catch up to the Union forces and a 2 week battle follows. Grant suffers major casualties again but still follows his route to Richmond. Ensures Lincoln he will continue to fight. June 3 rd – Cold Harbor Grant mounts two attacks and again loses many troops. This time 7,000. Grant mounts two attacks and again loses many troops. This time 7,000.
Siege at Petersburg A railroad center south of Richmond. Supplied food to the city. Supplied food to the city. Grant’s attack fails and in two months he has lost 65,000 more of his troops. So many men died that some had pinned their name/address on their uniform so they could be identified. So many men died that some had pinned their name/address on their uniform so they could be identified. June 18 th, 1864 Grant opts for siege tactics. Lee has trouble replacing casualties and tries to defend until the November election in the Union. Lee has trouble replacing casualties and tries to defend until the November election in the Union.
Shenandoah Valley Grant sends General Phil Sheridan to attack and destroy all transportation routes and crops. One home burned belonged to a relative of Robert E. Lee; Henrietta Lee. One home burned belonged to a relative of Robert E. Lee; Henrietta Lee. This marks the beginning of Grant’s utter devastation of the South.
Sherman takes Georgia Same tactics as Grant with Atlanta as his goal. General Joseph Johnston would defend in the same way as Lee. General Joseph Johnston would defend in the same way as Lee. Johnston was replaced by General James Hood who Jefferson Davis thought would be more aggressive A series of battles results in their retreat to Atlanta and Gen Sherman lays siege to Atlanta. A series of battles results in their retreat to Atlanta and Gen Sherman lays siege to Atlanta. Confederate army flees the city in early September.
Sherman’s March to the Sea Plans to march to capture Savannah. Torches the city of Atlanta before leaving Torches the city of Atlanta before leaving Causes complete destruction for 300 miles. Causes complete destruction for 300 miles. Destroys bridges, factories, railroads, livestock, crops and even homes. Arrives in Savannah and the Confederates have already fled. Easily takes the city.
Election of 1864 Lincoln (Rep.) runs with Andrew Johnson Johnson was a Pro Union Southerner Johnson was a Pro Union Southerner Lincoln faces trouble for his pocket Veto of the Wade – Davis Bill……. Union Party. Ran against Gen. McClellan - Democrat Ran against Gen. McClellan - Democrat Thought his chances were good because he had support from some troops. Promised to negotiate an end to war Lincoln wins easily after Union capture of Atlanta Lincoln wins easily after Union capture of Atlanta
Freedom February 1865 – Lincoln and Congress pass the Thirteenth Amendment. Became a law on December 18 th Became a law on December 18 th The law ended slavery in the United States permanently. The law ended slavery in the United States permanently. It becomes apparent that the war is nearly over. It becomes apparent that the war is nearly over.
End of the War. Sherman marches from Savannah to SC SC was seen as the basis for Confederate belief because it was the 1 st state to secede. SC was seen as the basis for Confederate belief because it was the 1 st state to secede. Even more brutal than he was in Georgia. Even more brutal than he was in Georgia. Burns nearly all houses in his path Burns half of Columbia, the state capital, to the ground Stops the destruction of civilian property upon entering North Carolina. Stops the destruction of civilian property upon entering North Carolina.
Surrender at Appomattox Lee tries to reunite with Johnston to combine forces, but is cut off and retreats to the small town of Appomattox, Virginia. Lee knows the war is over despite suggestions to begin guerilla warfare. Lee knows the war is over despite suggestions to begin guerilla warfare. Lee and Grant meet in the house of Wilmer McLean.
Terms of Surrender Lee and Grant talked peacefully and then exchanged plans for the surrender. Lee and Grant talked peacefully and then exchanged plans for the surrender. Troops could return home with their horses. Would not be punished as traitors. Grant offered to feed the Confederate troops. Grant orders no celebration in the Union army because the southerners were “our countrymen again” Grant orders no celebration in the Union army because the southerners were “our countrymen again” Surrender met with mixed feelings in the south. Surrender met with mixed feelings in the south. Gen. Johnston surrenders to Sherman in NC a few weeks later Confederate surrender continues throughout the month
Lincoln’s Assassination Shot at Ford’s Theater in Washington D.C. by John Wilkes Booth Lincoln dies early the next morning after nothing could be done for him. Lincoln dies early the next morning after nothing could be done for him. Booth is found in a barn hiding, the barn is burned and shot at, killing him. Booth is found in a barn hiding, the barn is burned and shot at, killing him. A Tragic loss, but what was gained by the war?