2Remember… Confederate capital: Richmond, VA Border States: MD, MO, KY, DEAll slave statesDE had the fewest, stayed with the UnionMD had more but stayed with Union even with much pro-Confederate supportKY divided in opinion, people fought on both sides but the state gov remained under Union controlMO had fighting about which side to take for 2 years but remained with the UnionFort Sumter: April 12, 1861
31st Battle of Bull Run/1st Manassas North: named battles after rivers, mountains, etc…South: named battles after nearby townsMcDowell in charge of Union army7/16/1861: McDowell took troops into southern territoryUp against BeauregardMany spectators followed the troops to watch7/21/61: McDowell attacked
4Battle Begins 1st the Union was winning Then Gen. Thomas Jackson got there with his troops to reinforce the Conf troops“Stonewall Jackson” nicknamed that because he never gave up during battleUnion advance stopped and eventually retreatedRetreated all the way the to Washington, DCConf could have attacked DC but they were also inexperienced and exhausted so they did not
5Lessons Learned Both sides need more training Battles are worse than expected and civilians do not belong thereThis will not be a “quick” war (originally thought it would be over by Christmas)Both sides need more preparationsMcDowell was replaced by George McClellan
6Strengths of Both Sides NorthMore railroad mileageMore people to serve in the military and work in the factoriesEstablished government with a strong federal govMore industrialBalanced economySouthBetter military leadershipBetter military trainingHome-field advantage
7StrategiesNorth“Anaconda Plan”: surround enemy and squeeze it to deathNaval blockade of the southern coastlineTake control of the Mississippi River and cut the Confederacy in 2Capture Richmond, the Confederate capitalSouthWar of attritionBattle to wear down the enemyGain a foreign ally (especially hoped for Britain)Wait and defend their territory
8Tactics and Technology OldAll lined up to march into battleConcentrate forces, assault a position and drive enemy awayCannons and muskets (not very accurate)Long time to re-load weaponsNewGuerilla warfare (surprise attacks)Bullet shaped ammo not musket ballsFighting from further away from enemyRifling used on inside of gun barrelsHeavy artillery with rifled barrels, shells, and canister
9War in the West Goal: control the Mississippi River Targets: AK, LA, MS, and TNUnion Gen. Ulysses S. GrantMap p. 385Feb Grant began to move south down the TN RiverObjective: take Fort Henry and Fort Donelson
10Union Victories in the West 2/6/1862: Grant attacked Fort Henry and forced it’s surrenderThen marched troops to Fort Donelson3 days of fighting until the fort surrenderedGrant’s nickname: “Unconditional Surrender Grant”Grant continued south along the TN River to threaten AL and MS
11March 1862Conf Gen Johnston had his troops getting ready to fight Grant in MSGrant stopped in TN to wait for Gen. Buell and more troops before moving into MSJohnston was aware of these happenings
12April 6, 1862 Gen Johnston attacks Grant by surprise Called the Battle of ShilohAt the end of the first day it looked like a Confederate victoryJohnston even sent a letter to Davis saying soBuell got there with reinforcements for Grant and the next day the Union troops attacked Johnston’s by surpriseBattled ended up a Union victoryVery high casualties (some called Grant “the Butcher”)Union: 13,000Confederate: 11, 000
13Also in the WestAdmiral David Farragut was moving north on the Mississippi RiverLate April 1862: captured New OrleansContinued north to Baton Rouge, LA and Natchez, MSJune 6, 1862 seized Memphis, TNThere were only 2 more main ports to capture before the Union held the MS River (took about a year)
14Meanwhile in the East Confederates created an ironclad ship Under Union control it was the “Merrimack” but the Conf renamed it the “Virginia”Union built the “Monitor” an iron shipMarch 9, 1862: Merrimack and Monitor faced offNeither was able to do much damage but the Merrimack withdrew for repairsUnion called this a victoryMerrimack was sunk on purpose by the South laterMonitor sunk in a storm
15Peninsular Campaign 2nd attempt to capture Richmond (map p 386) May 1862: McClellan was in charge of Union troopsPeninsula SE of RichmondPlan was to move up the peninsula and take RichmondAt Yorktown they ran into Conf troops and McClellan decided to wait
16Battle of the Seven Pines Part of Peninsular CampaignMay, 1862Union VictoryVery heavy casualties on both sidesConf commander wounded so Robert E. Lee took over in JuneConf Gen Jackson took some troops and pretended to prepare to attack DCLincoln refused to send additional troops to McClellan to protect DC
17Seven Days Battle Jackson rejoined Lee’s troops outside of Richmond In late June, 1862Combined Confederate forces attacked McClellan’s weakened troopsMcClellan retreatedConfederate victoryCasualties: 20,000 Union and 16,000 Confederate
18ResultsLincoln removed McClellan and chose Gen John Pope to lead the Union Army of the Potomac (army the protected DC that McClellan had led)Lincoln ordered McClellan to return to DC
19Second Battle of Bull Run/2nd Manassas Lee divided his army againLate August Lee attacked Pope’s forcesJackson’s forces attacked after surrounding PopeConfederate victoryLincoln was very upsetRemoved Pope and returned McClellan
20South Changes Strategy South shifted from defense to offenseLee pushed forces into MD northwest of DCMcClellan’s troops found some plans and met him just after Lee crossed into MDMajor and crucial battle took place near village of Sharpsburg, MD at Antietam Creek
21Antietam Union troops outnumbered Conf troops Night of Sept 17, 1862 more than 22,000 men lay dead or woundedSingle bloodiest day of the Civil WarCasualties about even on both sides but McClellan had far more fresh troops available than LeeMcClellan did nothing, instead of attacking at dawn, and let Lee’s army walk awayLincoln fired McClellan because though he won, he let a decisive victory slip away
23Politics of the SouthConfederacy: loose union of states with a weaker federal government than state governmentsCreated a constitution: similar to that of the Union – 2 main differences1. Slavery is legal2. More States Rights
24Mobilization Efforts to Use Limited Resources Efficiently Confederate congress passed laws to increase support of warfare.Farmers gave 10% of crops to the armyThe army could take male slaves for military service and the owner was paid for the use of his slaveApril 1862 – Draft Passed (Conscription)All white men serve 3 yearsAge raised to 45 after AntietamLater increased to 50
25More Confederate lawsGovernment would determine what and how much to produce.Wool - Cotton - LeatherSeized control of railroads from private ownersIncome tax created to raise money for the war effortHad to do the best they could with fewer resources.
26Impact of States’ Rights Not all mobilization efforts were successfulHarmed the war effort in many waysExample: people avoided the draftSouth sought help form Europe (Britain and France)Failed to be recognized by either of themPrivateers: 11 British built ships that fought against the Union during the war
27Politics of the NorthMuch effort was given to keep public support of the war highTensions increased with Great BritainThe Trent: 1861 – President Davis sent two people to gain recognition from the British (boarded the Trent)Union removed the 2 men from the shipEngland threatened war if the Union didn’t release the menLincoln ordered the men released “One war at a time”
28Republicans in Control of Congress Pacific Railroad Act (July 1862): supplied money for the building of the continental railroadHomestead Act (1862): free government land in the west to people who were willing to live thereGovernment raised the tariff ratePassed the first federal income tax (1861)Internal Revenue Act of 1862: taxed medicine, tobacco, and newspapersNearly all taxes ended at the end of the war.
29Republicans (continued) Reformed the banking system1862 – Congress established a new currencyGreenbacksValue was established by the government - Fiat
30Northern Opposition to the War Copperheads: Northern Democrats who sympathized with the South and opposed the warDraft dodgers and draft riots happened throughout the North
31Keeping Control in the Border States Delaware – Stayed LoyalMaryland – If Maryland would leave the Union, Washington D.C. would be in Confederate territory.Missouri – Supported action to overthrow a pro-Confederate state government.Kentucky – Martial LawIn some areas of the Union, Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus: (can be held in jail without being charged with a crime)
33Emancipation and the War Some people began to question if restoring the Union was enough (slavery became a question again)Lincoln was hesitant at first to end slavery: He didn’t feel that it was a part of his job.Eventually he used ending slavery as another method to end the war (a 4th strategy to hurt the South and bring the war to an end)
34The Emancipation Proclamation Fall of 1862 after the battle of Antietam.Lincoln issued the proclamation on January 1st, 1963Freed slaves in the states that had secededVery controversial, but it showed a shift in the mentality of the warHad little impact on slavery since the areas affected considered themselves to be outside of the UnionMade sure that European countries did not get involved on the South’s side (they no longer supported slavery)
36What to do with slaves when the Union troops encountered them? Some union commanders give them back to their slave owners when returning other possessions of theirs.Others felt that they were contraband: it is generally accepted that during a war, property that is captured becomes the property of the enemy government.With this idea, many slaves were freed.
37African Americans in the Army In the NorthCongress passed a law allowing African Americans to serve in the army in July of 1862Many joined after the Emancipation ProclamationOn warships, black and white men served togetherAs soldiers they served in separate regimentsThe African American regiments had white commanding officers.Until June of 1864, African Americans were paid less than white soldiers.
39The Hardships of WarDramatic changes in the lives of people in the North and SouthWives and mothers lived in fearBoth sides faced labor shortages, inflation, and other economic problemsBy 1863 it was clear that the North was better prepared to meet the needs of the war than the South.
40The Southern Economy During the War Food shortages (food production declined as the war continued)Lack of men due to the draft: Women ran the farms and were in charge of the slavesFood riots erupted in southern cities (most were led by women) because of the lack of foodInflation: Shortages and a lack of goods, plus profiteers (those who bought up a bunch of goods and waited to sell until the price got really high)Problems at home led to many desertions in the army
41The Northern Economy During the War Industries heavily dependent on cotton were hurtMost Northern industries boomedEspecially war related industriesWomen filled critical roles in factories as more men went off to war.Prices rose faster than wages during the warSome northern profiteers: selling poor quality equipment to the military at high prices
42Prison CampsAndersonville was the most notorious southern camp in GeorgiaMany scattered throughout the North and SouthIn most cases officers were treated better than other prisoners
43Medical Care¼ of the soldiers didn’t survive the war, most from disease and not battle woundsPoor nutrition and contaminated food led to dysentery and typhoid feverMalaria and pneumonia were also killersUnion soldier was three times more likely to die in camp or in a hospital than he was to be killed on the battlefieldOne in five Union soldiers who was wounded in battle later died from their wounds
44Women and the War Effort Women on both sides helped to care for the woundedClara Barton “The angel of the battlefield”Later began the Red CrossDorothea Dix organized the Union Army’s nursing Corps4,000 women served as nurses for the Union
45Sanitation Non-existent in most camps Garbage and rotting food littered on the groundHuman waste and manure polluted the waterEpidemics of contagious diseases swept through camps.At times only half of the troops in a regiment were availableUnites States Sanitary Commission: Created in June of 1861, attempted to combat these problemsInspected army hospitals and campsOrganized cleanups and provided advice about controlling infection, disease prevention, sewage disposal, and nutritionAbout twice as many soldiers on each side died from disease as from enemy gunfire
47Victories for General Lee Battle of Fredericksburg (December 13, 1862)The Union’s McClellan delayed after Antietam and was replaced with Ambrose Burnside- Burnside marched directly towards Richmond.Lee’s 79,000 met Burnside’s 122,000 at Fredericksburg, Virginia on Rappahannock River.Burnside crossed the river without cover and wave after wave of Union troops were met with artillery fire13,000 Union Casualties to only 5,000 ConfederateBurnside asks to be relieved of his command
49Battle of Chancellorsville (May 1, 1863) Lincoln appoints Gen. Joseph HookerPlans to move around Fredericksburg secretly and attack Lee from behind his defenses.His forces were discovered by General J.E.B. Stuart. (a cavalry commander)Lee sends troops after HookerAfter a brief skirmish, Lee’s forces under Jackson move into the thick woods and separate, attacking from several angles.Jackson mistakenly shot that night in the dark, dies on May 10th.Confederate army wins complete victory
51Build-up to Gettysburg Lowest point in the war for the UnionMajor losses at Fredericksburg & ChancellorsvilleRumors of Lincoln’s resignation / talk of peaceLee Moves NorthSeeking renewed resources / Victory in Union territoryHear word of shoe supply in Gettysburg PA- Skirmish with Union cavalry turned into the greatest battle ever fought in North America
52Gettysburg Day 1 – July 1st 1863 Both Union and Confederate troops rush to the site of the skirmishGeneral George Meade arrives – only in command less than one weekFighting occurs between two ridgesConfederates are able to push Union troops back to the hills. – Fighting continued throughout the day. A confident Lee proposed (against advisement) to attack the Union troops early the next morning.
54Gettysburg Day 2 – July 2nd Gen. James LongstreetNot ready to attack with Union troops until 4pm!Gives Meade a chance to gather reinforcements and attack.Little Round Top!Vulnerable hill – strategically importantCould be used for cannon fireUnion troops run out of ammo, defend the hill with bayonet chargeSave Union from defeat
55Gettysburg Day 3 – July 3rd Begins with brief Confederate attack on north Union line.Battlefield falls silent afterEarly Afternoon – 150 cannons fire to begin Lee’s infantry charge against the Union’s center.Marches 15,000 troops Under General PickettOnly half of the troops return to Confederate lines after ½ hour of battle
57Conclusion of Gettysburg Pickett’s charge ended the bloodiest battle of the Civil WarUnion Army23,000 of 85,000 suffer casualtiesConfederate Army28,000 of 75,000 suffer casualtiesLee had lost 1/3 of his army for the second timeConfederates retreat back to Virginia.
59Vicksburg, Mississippi The last point left in Confederate control on the Mississippi R.Strategically safe.On a hilltopSurrounded by swamplandOnly one area of dry land that could be used to attack
60Ulysses S. Grant commands Union troops. Made several previous attempts to bypass or attack the city.Moves far south and crosses the river, then attacks Mississippi’s capital at Jackson.Draws Confederate forces (under Pemberton) out of Vicksburg.Clash again at Champion’s HillConfederates retreat to Vicksburg
61Grant uses Siege tactics SIEGE: A tactic in which an enemy is surrounded and starved in order to make it surrender.Grant uses Siege tacticsArtillery fires 2,800 Shells per day for over a month.Residents dug caves in hillsides to hide from the artillery fire.On July 4th, 1863 Pemberton surrenders the Confederate troops.Why July 4th?Thought he would have the best chance at negotiating the terms of surrender.
62The Importance of 1863 Turning point of the war! Control of the MississippiConfederacy cut in twoLee’s army runs out of reinforcements, has to retreat to Virginia.Never again threatens Union soil.
63The Gettysburg Address Delivered on November 19th of 1863A ceremony held at Gettysburg, was designed to honor Union soldiers who had died there in battle. 15,000 were in attendance.The speech only lasted 2 minutes.Initially ignored because of its shortness, the address later became one of the most popular speeches in American History.
64Devastation and a New Freedom Chapter 11, Section 4Devastation and a New Freedom
65A Change of AttitudeThe Confederate capital at Richmond, VA has a new feeling about its streets.Many cities set fire by Union troops, but the Confederates set Richmond ablaze on their own.African Americans welcome the arriving Union army with open arms.
66A More Aggressive Gen. Grant Confederates hope to hold defenses until Union election in November of 1864Feel that another president may replace Lincoln and grant independence to the south.Lincoln puts Grant in charge of the Union army and brings him east to fight LeeGen. William Sherman is placed in the westBoth plan to beat the Confederates through greater population and industry.Grant plans to charge directly to Richmond, knowing that Lee will have to fight to defend the capital
67Battle of the Wilderness 2 Day battle that begins on May 5thThis is Lee’s first attempt to stop Grant’s march.Fought in the same location as the Battle of Chancellorsville.Fought in a dense forest…… The woods caught on fire!!!!Confusion occurs because of thisLongstreet is shot only a short distance from where Jackson was shot the year beforeGrant loses many men but refuses to retreatHe marches around the Confederates and continues towards Richmond
68Spotsylvania and Cold Harbor May 8th - SpotsylvaniaConfederates catch up to the Union forces and a 2 week battle follows.Grant suffers major casualties again but still follows his route to Richmond. Ensures Lincoln he will continue to fight.June 3rd – Cold HarborGrant mounts two attacks and again loses many troops. This time 7,000.
69Siege at Petersburg A railroad center south of Richmond. Supplied food to the city.Grant’s attack fails and in two months he has lost 65,000 more of his troops.So many men died that some had pinned their name/address on their uniform so they could be identified.June 18th, 1864 Grant opts for siege tactics.Lee has trouble replacing casualties and tries to defend until the November election in the Union.
70Shenandoah ValleyGrant sends General Phil Sheridan to attack and destroy all transportation routes and crops.One home burned belonged to a relative of Robert E. Lee; Henrietta Lee.This marks the beginning of Grant’s utter devastation of the South.
71Sherman takes Georgia Same tactics as Grant with Atlanta as his goal. General Joseph Johnston would defend in the same way as Lee.Johnston was replaced by General James Hood who Jefferson Davis thought would be more aggressiveA series of battles results in their retreat to Atlanta and Gen Sherman lays siege to Atlanta.Confederate army flees the city in early September.
72Sherman’s March to the Sea Plans to march to capture Savannah.Torches the city of Atlanta before leavingCauses complete destruction for 300 miles.Destroys bridges, factories, railroads, livestock, crops and even homes.Arrives in Savannah and the Confederates have already fled. Easily takes the city.
73Election of 1864 Lincoln (Rep.) runs with Andrew Johnson Johnson was a Pro Union SouthernerLincoln faces trouble for his pocket Veto of the Wade – Davis Bill……. Union Party.Ran against Gen. McClellan - DemocratThought his chances were good because he had support from some troops.Promised to negotiate an end to warLincoln wins easily after Union capture of Atlanta
74FreedomFebruary 1865 – Lincoln and Congress pass the Thirteenth Amendment.Became a law on December 18thThe law ended slavery in the United States permanently.It becomes apparent that the war is nearly over.
75End of the War. Sherman marches from Savannah to SC SC was seen as the basis for Confederate belief because it was the 1st state to secede.Even more brutal than he was in Georgia.Burns nearly all houses in his pathBurns half of Columbia, the state capital, to the groundStops the destruction of civilian property upon entering North Carolina.
76Surrender at Appomattox Lee tries to reunite with Johnston to combine forces, but is cut off and retreats to the small town of Appomattox, Virginia.Lee knows the war is over despite suggestions to begin guerilla warfare.Lee and Grant meet in the house of Wilmer McLean.
77Terms of SurrenderLee and Grant talked peacefully and then exchanged plans for the surrender.Troops could return home with their horses.Would not be punished as traitors.Grant offered to feed the Confederate troops.Grant orders no celebration in the Union army because the southerners were “our countrymen again”Surrender met with mixed feelings in the south.Gen. Johnston surrenders to Sherman in NC a few weeks laterConfederate surrender continues throughout the month
78Lincoln’s Assassination Shot at Ford’s Theater in Washington D.C. by John Wilkes BoothLincoln dies early the next morning after nothing could be done for him.Booth is found in a barn hiding, the barn is burned and shot at, killing him.A Tragic loss, but what was gained by the war?