Presentation on theme: "A Summary of the American Civil War. Fort Sumter The Civil War begins: April 12, 1861 Federal fort in South Carolina under command of Major Robert Anderson."— Presentation transcript:
A Summary of the American Civil War
Fort Sumter The Civil War begins: April 12, 1861 Federal fort in South Carolina under command of Major Robert Anderson Union surrendered two days later Fort Sumter is the first battle of the Civil War
Military Strategies UNION Anaconda Plan – a squeeze plan of blockades in the east coast Take Mississippi River – squeeze from the west Capture the Confederate capital – RICHMOND, VA CONFEDERACY Patience – Fight a defensive war Get help from Europe.
Battle of Antietam LUCK! Cigars?!!?? Mr. Molasses crawls again! 23,000+ Union and Confederates died in just ONE day of fighting. BLOODIEST day of the Civil War!! Lee retreats and McClellan fails to follow Winner???? UNION (barely)! Good time to Emancipate…
Antietam gave us TWO things: 1.Lincoln passed the Emancipation Proclamation. “Rebel States of the Confederacy: if you do not come back to the Union BY Jan. 1, 1863, your slaves will be freed!” The Union will now use African-Americans in the army and the navy. - But there was NO reason for the South to listen! 2. (U) General McClellan is fired!
Union Victories in the West Goal ? Union wants control of Mississippi! Battle of Shiloh (Tennessee)– April 6, 1862 - Heavy Union losses first day - (U) Grant fights on - 1 of the bloodiest battles of entire war, but Union wins! Union captures Mississippi River - New Orleans - Memphis - Both ends U.S. GRANT
Union SIEGE on VICKSBURG Where? On the Mississippi with (U) US Grant WHY? The LAST spot on the Mississippi River that was held by the Confederates. Results? UNION surrounded the city for more than 6-weeks until the Confederates surrendered!!! ALL of the river belonged to UNION!
Three-day Battle of Gettysburg BLOODIEST BATTLE of the Civil War Union (although 17,500 were killed or wounded…23,000 Rebels)
The 54 th Massachusetts Regiment Union’s most famous all-black regiment. Famous battle at Fort Wagner…VERY heavy losses. Helped gain respect for African-Americans
“Four Score and Seven Years Ago…” The Gettysburg Address was written by Abe Lincoln to dedicate a cemetery to those who died at the Battle of Gettysburg. Although a 3-minute speech, it is considered one of the greatest speeches in American history.
“Total War” Tactics (U) Grant and Lincoln decided to attack Rebel morale by ordering soldiers to destroy everything and anything that could help the South in the war effort!
TWO Union general TOTAL WAR kings: William Tecumseh Sherman and Philip Sheridan. Sheridan destroyed the Shenandoah Valley and Sherman “Marched to the Sea” – to destroy Atlanta, Georgia
Election of 1864 Lincoln beats General McClellan for the presidency, mostly because of the success of the TOTAL WAR TACTICS.
Grant in Charge With Grant in charge of the Union troops now, he marches to RICHMOND TO END THE WAR!!!!! Outside of Richmond for months and with VERY HEAVY LOSSES… finally gets Lee to surrender at APPOMATTOX COURT HOUSE, VIRGINIA on April 9, 1865.