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A Summary of the American Civil War

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1 A Summary of the American Civil War

2 Fort Sumter is the first battle of the Civil War
The Civil War begins: April 12, 1861 Federal fort in South Carolina under command of Major Robert Anderson Union surrendered two days later Fort Sumter is the first battle of the Civil War

3 Military Strategies UNION CONFEDERACY
Anaconda Plan – a squeeze plan of blockades in the east coast Take Mississippi River – squeeze from the west Capture the Confederate capital – RICHMOND, VA Patience – Fight a defensive war Get help from Europe.

4 Battle of Bull Run – July 21, 1861

5 Bull Run (Manassas) – First MAJOR Battle of the Civil War
Goal – Union will capture Richmond, VA and end the war quickly PROBLEM – Rebels met them at Virginia stream “Bull Run” where © General “Stonewall” Thomas Jackson stands firm. RESULT? - Union retreats/Confederate victory Lesson learned? Both sides need more training and this will NOT be a quick war

6 Mr. Molasses – (U) General George McClellan
Slow/Cautious and organized Commander of the ARMY OF THE POTOMAC

7 Monitor (Union) and Merrimac (AKA Virginia) at Hampton Roads
Naval Action Union blockade was working perfectly Ironclad ships were added to the war Monitor (Union) and Merrimac (AKA Virginia) at Hampton Roads

8 © Gen. Robert E. Lee Gets OFFENSIVE
September, 1862 Off to Maryland Battle of ANTIETAM GOAL – Destroy Union morale

9 Battle of Antietam LUCK! Cigars?!!?? Mr. Molasses crawls again!
23,000+ Union and Confederates died in just ONE day of fighting. BLOODIEST day of the Civil War!! Lee retreats and McClellan fails to follow Winner???? UNION (barely)! Good time to Emancipate…

10 Antietam gave us TWO things:
Lincoln passed the Emancipation Proclamation. “Rebel States of the Confederacy: if you do not come back to the Union BY Jan. 1, 1863, your slaves will be freed!” The Union will now use African-Americans in the army and the navy. - But there was NO reason for the South to listen! 2. (U) General McClellan is fired!

11 Battle of Antietam

12 Replacement General Ambrose Sideburns Burnside

13 Rebel Victories in the East
Battle of Fredericksburg , Virginia © General Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson held strong defensive position 13,000 Union dead to 5,000 Rebels Union led by General Ambrose Burnside on suicide mission (EPIC UNION FAIL under the Northern Lights) Battle of Chancellorsville, Virginia 3-days Union defeated But “Stonewall” killed

14 Union Victories in the West
Goal ? Union wants control of Mississippi! Battle of Shiloh (Tennessee)– April 6, 1862 - Heavy Union losses first day - (U) Grant fights on - 1 of the bloodiest battles of entire war, but Union wins! Union captures Mississippi River - New Orleans - Memphis - Both ends U.S. GRANT

Where? On the Mississippi with (U) US Grant WHY? The LAST spot on the Mississippi River that was held by the Confederates. Results? UNION surrounded the city for more than 6-weeks until the Confederates surrendered!!! ALL of the river belonged to UNION!

16 The Battle of Gettysburg, PA
Goal? © General Lee needed supplies and wanted a win on Union soil. Result? Three days of fighting in the HOT July sun. At 1st Rebels were winning, but Union (under Gen. George Meade) wins. Important parts? The very last attack by the Confederates was made by General George Pickett = a suicide mission straight on the Union lines, known as “Pickett’s Charge”

17 Three-day Battle of Gettysburg BLOODIEST BATTLE of the Civil War Union (although 17,500 were killed or wounded…23,000 Rebels)

18 The 54th Massachusetts Regiment
Union’s most famous all-black regiment. Famous battle at Fort Wagner…VERY heavy losses. Helped gain respect for African-Americans

19 “Four Score and Seven Years Ago…”
The Gettysburg Address was written by Abe Lincoln to dedicate a cemetery to those who died at the Battle of Gettysburg. Although a 3-minute speech, it is considered one of the greatest speeches in American history.


21 “Total War” Tactics (U) Grant and Lincoln decided to attack Rebel morale by ordering soldiers to destroy everything and anything that could help the South in the war effort!

22 TWO Union general TOTAL WAR kings: William Tecumseh Sherman and Philip Sheridan. Sheridan destroyed the Shenandoah Valley and Sherman “Marched to the Sea” – to destroy Atlanta, Georgia

23 Election of 1864 Lincoln beats General McClellan for the presidency, mostly because of the success of the TOTAL WAR TACTICS.

24 Grant in Charge With Grant in charge of the Union troops now, he marches to RICHMOND TO END THE WAR!!!!! Outside of Richmond for months and with VERY HEAVY LOSSES… finally gets Lee to surrender at APPOMATTOX COURT HOUSE, VIRGINIA on April 9, 1865.

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