2Fort Sumter is the first battle of the Civil War The Civil War begins:April 12, 1861Federal fort in South Carolina under command of Major Robert AndersonUnion surrendered two days laterFort Sumter is the first battle of the Civil War
3Military Strategies UNION CONFEDERACY Anaconda Plan – a squeeze plan of blockades in the east coastTake Mississippi River – squeeze from the westCapture the Confederate capital – RICHMOND, VAPatience – Fight a defensive warGet help from Europe.
6Mr. Molasses – (U) General George McClellan Slow/Cautious and organized Commander of the ARMY OF THE POTOMAC
7Monitor (Union) and Merrimac (AKA Virginia) at Hampton Roads Naval ActionUnion blockade was working perfectlyIronclad ships were added to the warMonitor (Union) and Merrimac (AKA Virginia) at Hampton Roads
9Battle of Antietam LUCK! Cigars?!!?? Mr. Molasses crawls again! 23,000+ Union and Confederates died in just ONE day of fighting. BLOODIEST day of the Civil War!!Lee retreats and McClellan fails to followWinner???? UNION (barely)!Good time to Emancipate…
10Antietam gave us TWO things: Lincoln passed the Emancipation Proclamation.“Rebel States of the Confederacy: if you do not come back to the Union BY Jan. 1, 1863, your slaves will be freed!” The Union will now use African-Americans in the army and the navy.- But there was NO reason for the South to listen!2. (U) General McClellan is fired!
14Union Victories in the West Goal ? Union wants control of Mississippi!Battle of Shiloh (Tennessee)– April 6, 1862- Heavy Union losses first day- (U) Grant fights on- 1 of the bloodiest battles of entire war, but Union wins!Union captures Mississippi River- New Orleans- Memphis- Both endsU.S. GRANT
15Union SIEGE on VICKSBURG Where? On the Mississippi with (U) US GrantWHY? The LAST spot on the Mississippi River that was held by the Confederates.Results? UNION surrounded the city for more than 6-weeks until the Confederates surrendered!!!ALL of the riverbelonged to UNION!
17Three-day Battle of Gettysburg BLOODIEST BATTLE of the Civil War Union (although 17,500 were killed or wounded…23,000 Rebels)
18The 54th Massachusetts Regiment Union’s most famous all-black regiment.Famous battle at Fort Wagner…VERY heavy losses.Helped gain respect forAfrican-Americans
19“Four Score and Seven Years Ago…” The Gettysburg Address was written by Abe Lincoln to dedicate a cemetery to those who died at the Battle of Gettysburg.Although a 3-minute speech, it is considered one of the greatest speechesin American history.
21“Total War” Tactics(U) Grant and Lincoln decided to attack Rebel morale by ordering soldiers to destroy everything and anything that could help the South in the war effort!
22TWO Union general TOTAL WAR kings: William Tecumseh Sherman and Philip Sheridan. Sheridan destroyed the Shenandoah Valley and Sherman “Marched to the Sea” – to destroy Atlanta, Georgia
23Election of 1864Lincoln beats General McClellan for the presidency, mostly because of the success of the TOTAL WAR TACTICS.
24Grant in ChargeWith Grant in charge of the Union troops now, he marches to RICHMOND TO END THE WAR!!!!!Outside of Richmond for months and with VERY HEAVY LOSSES… finally gets Lee to surrender at APPOMATTOX COURT HOUSE, VIRGINIA on April 9, 1865.