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Early Years of the War and The Emancipation Proclamation

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1 Early Years of the War and The Emancipation Proclamation
Chapter 13, Section 2 & 3 The American Journey, Glencoe

2 First Battle of Bull Run
First major battle of Civil War Fought in northern Virginia Union had about 30,000 men Most volunteers; all inexperienced Confederacy had about 20,000 troops Yankees held off the Rebels until they rallied & were inspired by General “Stonewall” Jackson troops that came as reinforcements Union forced to retreat to Washington, D.C.

3 First Battle of Bull Run
General Stonewall Jackson

4 A Shock for the North Outcome of First Bull Run shocked the North, but Lincoln reacted with a call for more volunteers for the army Northerners woke up to the reality of war This would be a long conflict Lincoln appointed General George B. McClellan to head the Union army of the east (or Army of the Potomac) McClellan began training 150,000 troops

5 War at Sea Lincoln had ordered a naval blockade of Southern ports to try to prevent the South from exporting its cotton & from importing supplies Southerners planned to challenge the blockade The Monitor Versus the Merrimack Southerners transformed the Merrimack, a former Union warship, by covering it with thick iron plates, and renamed it the Virginia This ironclad, or warship, went to battle against the Monitor (the Union ironclad), but neither ship would sink This battle marked a new age in naval warfare

6 Monitor vs. Merrimack

7 War in the West

8 Early Victories for the North
North’s primary goal in the West was to gain control the Mississippi & Tennessee Rivers Union operations centered at Cairo, Illinois under General Ulysses S. Grant Grant was able to capture Fort Henry on Tennessee River and Fort Donelson on the Cumberland Grant demands an “unconditional surrender” Grant becomes the North’s new hero These victories opened a path for Union troops to march into Tennessee, Mississippi, & Alabama

9 Capture of Fort Henry General Grant Fort Donelson

10 Battle of Shiloh April, 1862 Fought near Corinth, Mississippi – an important railroad junction Confederate forces launch surprise attack on morning of April 6, 1862 Bloodiest battle in the war so far Union able to defeat the Confederates on second day & win control of Corinth later on May 30 More than 20,000 casualties (people who are killed or wounded)

11 New Orleans Falls April 25, 1862
Union naval forces under David Farragut captured New Orleans, Louisiana, the South’s largest city This meant that the Confederacy could no longer use the river to carry its goods to sea At this point, the Union controlled almost the entire Mississippi River

12 War in the East General McClellan led army in east
Peninsular Campaign – McClellan moved & readied his troops over several weeks to make an attack on Richmond, Virginia Lincoln was frustrated by General McClellan He was not an aggressive general General Robert E. Lee commanded the Rebels Seven Day’s Battle – series of encounters between Rebels and Yankees Union troops failed to capture Richmond

13 War in the East, continued
Lincoln orders McClellan & his troops to pull back to northern Virginia Confederate General Stonewall Jackson moved his troops to attack the supply base at Manassas, VA Second Battle at Bull Run – August 29, 1862 Confederate victory & Richmond was no longer threatened

14 Lee Enters Maryland Following these Southern victories, Confederate Pres. Jefferson Davis ordered Lee to launch an offensive (or attack) into Maryland (NW of Washington, D.C.) In pursuit of Lee’s troops, two Union soldiers found a copy of Lee’s orders for his army Now McClellan knew exactly what Lee planned to do He learned that Lee’s army was divided into 4 parts

15 Battle of Antietam Sept. 17, 1862
Single bloodiest day of the entire war 20,000 soldiers dead or wounded The next day, Lee withdrew his troops which allowed the Union troops to claim victory Lincoln is still disappointed with McClellan – He replaces him in November, 1862 General Ambrose Burnsides takes over the Army of the Potomac

16 Effects of the Battle of Antietam
The British were just about ready to recognize the Confederacy as an independent nation, but the Union victory at Antietam changed their minds South lost its best chance at gaining international recognition & support Pres. Lincoln used the battle to take action against slavery

17 Emancipation Prior to the Battle of Antietam, the Northerners’ main goal is to preserve the Union rather than to end slavery Pres. Lincoln considered slavery immoral, but was reluctant to move against slavery because of the border states (slave states that remain in the Union) As the war went on, attitudes toward slavery changed Northerners thought slavery was helping with war effort in South Enslaved people were raising crops & digging trenches at army camps

18 Antietam & the Proclamation
Emancipate = to free Even before the proclamation, more than 100,000 African Americans left slavery for safety of Union By summer of 1862 Lincoln had decided to free all enslaved African Americans in South….. But he waited for the right time to announce it Lincoln makes the announcement following Union victory at Antietam Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation on Jan. 1, 1863

19 Effects of the Proclamation
It applied only to areas that the Confederacy controlled No slaves were freed at this point by the Proclamation It did not free those that lived in slave states that supported the Union Lincoln hoped that enslaved people would hear about the proclamation & would run from their owners Help keep the British & the French from supporting the Confederacy – made slavery “the” issue 1865 – Congress passed the 13th Amendment that truly freed enslaved Americans

20 Questions Why was control of the Mississippi River important?
What was the importance of the Union victory at the Battle of Antietam? What did the Emancipation Proclamation do? What did the 13th Amendment do that the Emancipation Proclamation did not do?

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