Presentation on theme: "Social Studies Homework None Quick Write What does the following idiom mean? turning point – He has reached a turning point in his life. Reminder ITBS."— Presentation transcript:
Social Studies Homework None Quick Write What does the following idiom mean? turning point – He has reached a turning point in his life. Reminder ITBS next Tues. and Wed.
A Nation at War Pages
North Against South 11 southern states seceded and formed the Confederacy. Four other slave states, Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware, stayed in the Union (Border States).
Advantages for the North 22 million people lived in the North, –9 million lived in the South. –1/3 of them were enslaved so they could not be soldiers. More factories for making weapons. More Railroad lines
Advantages for the South Most fighting took place in the South. Excellent military leaders –Ex: Gen. Robert E. Lee
Unions Strategies for Fighting Block southern seaports so the –Block them from trading with other countries took control of the Mississippi River.
Confederates Strategies for Fighting To fight off northern attacks until the Confederacy could survive as a separate nation. Hoped that –many northerners would switch sides –Britain and France would help them because of cotton.
The War in the East At the start of the war, both sides expected a quick, easy victory. July 1861, a Union army marched south from Washington to try to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond, VA.
Bull Run July 21, 1861, the two armies fought at a stream called Bull Run near the town of Manassas. At this battle, General Thomas Jonathan Jackson led Confederate troops from the top of a hill (Stonewall Jackson). The Confederate army won this battle but it was worse than expected.
The Wars Leaders 1862, General Robert E. Lee defeated two Union attacks on Richmond. In Virginias Shenandoah Valley, Stonewall Jackson beat several Union armies. He kept thousands of enemy soldiers away from Richmond.
Battle of Antietam Lee decided to invade Maryland. A Union army stopped him at the Battle of Antietam. It was the deadliest day of the war. The two armies suffered at least 23,000 casualties. Lees weakened army returned to Virginia.
The War in the West General Ulysses S. Grant led a Union army south from Illinois into Tennessee. He captured several Confederate forts along the way.
Battle of Shiloh Grant defeated a large of Confederate Army.
The War in the West The Union navy sailed up the Mississippi River and attacked New Orleans. They wanted to capture Vicksburg to take control of the Mississippi River from the Confederates.
The Governments Responds The Union blocked the ports so the Confederates could not get enough food, water, or money to fight. Jefferson Davis could also not find people to fight in the army so he started a draft. President Lincoln had to convince people that the war was still necessary. He also had to start a draft. (Rich people could pay to get out of the draft which caused riots.)
Turning Points In 1862, President Lincoln ended slavery. This would help to weaken the Confederacy. The Emancipation Proclamation declared that slaves in the Confederacy were free. It did not end slavery in the border states. The North would have to defeat the South to free the slaves.
Vicksburg and Gettysburg The Union shot cannons in Vicksburg for six weeks. On July 4 th, Vicksburg surrendered and the Union took over the Mississippi River. The Union also won the battle in Gettysburg. The heavy fire killed or wounded about half of the Confederate soldiers.
Gettysburg Address Later that year, President Lincoln gave a short speech at Gettysburg. He declared that the Union was fighting to make sure that American democracy would survive. (Gettysburg Address)
Lesson Summary At first, the Confederacy won most battles in the East, while the Union won battles in the West. However, victories at Vicksburg and Gettysburg gave the Union the advantage in the war.