3North Against South11 southern states seceded and formed the Confederacy.Four other slave states, Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware, stayed in the Union (Border States).
4Advantages for the North 22 million people lived in the North,9 million lived in the South.1/3 of them were enslaved so they could not be soldiers.More factories for making weapons.More Railroad lines
5Advantages for the South Most fighting took place in the South.Excellent military leadersEx: Gen. Robert E. Lee
6Union’s Strategies for Fighting Block southern seaports so theBlock them from trading with other countriestook control of the Mississippi River.
7Confederate’s Strategies for Fighting To fight off northern attacks until the Confederacy could survive as a separate nation.Hoped thatmany northerners would switch sidesBritain and France would help them because of cotton.
8The War in the EastAt the start of the war, both sides expected a quick, easy victory.July 1861, a Union army marched south from Washington to try to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond, VA.
9Bull RunJuly 21, 1861, the two armies fought at a stream called Bull Run near the town of Manassas. At this battle, General Thomas Jonathan Jackson led Confederate troops from the top of a hill (Stonewall Jackson). The Confederate army won this battle but it was worse than expected.
10The War’s Leaders1862, General Robert E. Lee defeated two Union attacks on Richmond.In Virginia’s Shenandoah Valley, Stonewall Jackson beat several Union armies. He kept thousands of enemy soldiers away from Richmond.
11Battle of AntietamLee decided to invade Maryland. A Union army stopped him at the Battle of Antietam. It was the deadliest day of the war. The two armies suffered at least 23,000 casualties.Lee’s weakened army returned to Virginia.
12The War in the WestGeneral Ulysses S. Grant led a Union army south from Illinois into Tennessee. He captured several Confederate forts along the way.
13Battle of ShilohGrant defeated a large of Confederate Army.
14The War in the WestThe Union navy sailed up the Mississippi River and attacked New Orleans. They wanted to capture Vicksburg to take control of the Mississippi River from the Confederates.
15The Governments Responds The Union blocked the ports so the Confederates could not get enough food, water, or money to fight. Jefferson Davis could also not find people to fight in the army so he started a draft.President Lincoln had to convince people that the war was still necessary. He also had to start a draft. (Rich people could pay to get out of the draft which caused riots.)
16Turning PointsIn 1862, President Lincoln ended slavery. This would help to weaken the Confederacy.The Emancipation Proclamation declared that slaves in the Confederacy were free. It did not end slavery in the border states. The North would have to defeat the South to free the slaves.
17Vicksburg and Gettysburg The Union shot cannons in Vicksburg for six weeks. On July 4th, Vicksburg surrendered and the Union took over the Mississippi River.The Union also won the battle in Gettysburg. The heavy fire killed or wounded about half of theConfederate soldiers.
18Gettysburg AddressLater that year, President Lincoln gave a short speech at Gettysburg. He declared that the Union was fighting to make sure that American democracy would survive. (Gettysburg Address)
19Lesson SummaryAt first, the Confederacy won most battles in the East, while the Union won battles in the West. However, victories at Vicksburg and Gettysburg gave the Union the advantage in the war.