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Devastation and Freedom

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1 Devastation and Freedom
Chapter 11 Section 4 Devastation and Freedom

2 Battle of the Wilderness
May 1864 Intense fighting mostly in wooded areas So intense it set the wooded areas on fire Many of the wounded burned to death Thick smoke led to many instances of friendly fire

3 Battle of the Wilderness
Grant’s forces took tremendous losses But he refused to retreat like previous Union generals He moved his army around the Confederates and continued heading South

4 What did the Battle of the Wilderness reveal about Grant’s strategy?
Under Grant’s leadership, troops would not retreat quickly The Union Army would be more aggressive but be criticized for the tremendous loss of life

5 Battle of Spotsylvania
Happened 2 days after Battle of the Wilderness Heavy fighting- in some spots Union dead were piled up 4 deep Northerners began to protest the huge loss of life Grant vowed to continued to fight on anyway

6 Battle of Cold Harbor 8 miles from Richmond (Confederate capital)
Grant launches to direct charges on the Confederates- who were behind strong fortifications 7,000 Union soldiers fall

7 Grant lost 65,000 in 2 months Many troops began pinning their names and address on their uniforms so they could be identified

8 What had the South hoped for in the election of 1864?
For Lincoln’s defeat and McClellan’s victory McClellan promised to negotiate an end to the war However…

9 Describe General Sherman’s March to the Sea
November 1864 Sherman leads 62,000 Union troops to capture Savannah, Georgia Before he left for Georgia, he ordered Atlanta burnt to the ground Destroyed everything from Atlanta to Savannah 300 miles of destruction

10 How did General Sherman affect the outcome of the 1864 election and the end of the Civil War?
Sherman’s capture of Atlanta changed the political climate of the North Now northerners believed they could win and no longer wanted to negotiate More people would now support Lincoln

11 What were the terms of General Lee’s surrender to General Grant?
Appomattox Court House, Virginia April 1865 Southern soldiers could take their horses and mules and go home The would not be considered traitors as long as they obeyed the laws where the lived Grant then offered to feed Lee’s army

12 Guerrilla Soldiers who use surprise raids and hit and run tactics
Many of Lee’s commanders suggested this rather than surrendering Lee rejected this, fearing it would lead to more devastation to Virginia

13 Who was John Wilkes Booth?
Actor Southern sympathizer Originally wanted to kidnap Lincoln in exchange for southern prisoners of war Led to unsuccessful attempts

14 Decided to kill him instead (as well as General Grant and Vice President Johnson)
Only able to kill Lincoln, shooting him in the back of the head Lincoln died shortly after

15 Booth was eventually cornered in a tobacco barn in Virginia
Shot (against orders) Northern leaders wanted him to stand trial

16 Thirteenth Amendment Became law December 18, 1865
The amendment ended slavery in the United States

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