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The Cold War 1945 - 1990. Who? The United States and the Soviet Union The United States and the Soviet Union.

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Presentation on theme: "The Cold War 1945 - 1990. Who? The United States and the Soviet Union The United States and the Soviet Union."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cold War

2 Who? The United States and the Soviet Union The United States and the Soviet Union

3 What? Tension and fears between the “free” and “communist” nations of the world Tension and fears between the “free” and “communist” nations of the world

4 Why? The former Allies during WWII had different views concerning the post- war world The former Allies during WWII had different views concerning the post- war world Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples Communist govt. & command economy vs. Democratic govt. & capitalist economy

5 Where? Global – in Europe, in Asia, and in Latin America Global – in Europe, in Asia, and in Latin America

6 How? - “Weapons” Used Propaganda Propaganda Diplomatic moves Diplomatic moves NATO vs. Warsaw Pact Scientific competition Scientific competition Arms Race - nuclear escalation Space Race – Sputnik launches race to the moon! Space Race – Sputnik launches race to the moon! Economic competition Economic competition Communist govt. & command economy vs. Democratic govt. & capitalist economy Espionage Espionage Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] Subversion Subversion Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples

7 US Goal Containment of Communism Containment of Communism 1947 Foreign Affairs article by State Dept. official George Kennan [“X Article”]: CONTAINMENT

8 George Kennan [“X Article”]: CONTAINMENT Goals Means Actual Application 1.Restoration of the balance of power 2.Reduction of Soviet ability to project outside power. Encouragement of self-confidence in nations threatened by Soviet expansion. Exploitation of tensions in international communism. Long-term program of U.S. economic assistance [Marshall Plan $] Cooperation with other communist regimes; [Supporting General Tito in Yugoslavia] 3.Modification of the Soviet concept of international relations. Negotiating settlement of outstanding differences. Using “carrots & sticks’; containing Germany with an embrace and Russia at arms length.

9 Government Reorganization to help fight the Cold War Department of Defense Department of Defense To replace the War Department To replace the War Department National Security Council National Security Council To coordinate making of foreign policy To coordinate making of foreign policy Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) To gather intelligence information To gather intelligence information

10 Recommendations Increase spending on defense (4X what it had been) Increase spending on defense (4X what it had been) Create alliances with Non-Communist countries (NATO) (SEATO) Create alliances with Non-Communist countries (NATO) (SEATO) Convince the American public of the necessity of increased defense programs Convince the American public of the necessity of increased defense programs

11 The Cold War in Europe An “Iron Curtain” had descended across Europe

12 Containment in Europe Truman Doctrine The Marshall Plan NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization

13 The Truman Doctrine U.S. military and economic aid to Greece and Turkey to prevent the spread of Communism U.S. military and economic aid to Greece and Turkey to prevent the spread of Communism 1 st successful attempt at containment 1 st successful attempt at containment

14 The Marshall Plan U.S. economic aid to help European countries rebuild after WWII U.S. economic aid to help European countries rebuild after WWII Strengthened democracies and their economies Strengthened democracies and their economies Won support for the U.S. Won support for the U.S. Money was spent in U.S. to help the American economy Money was spent in U.S. to help the American economy

15 The Bipolarization of Europe

16 NATO Defensive alliance of democratic nations against possible communist attack Defensive alliance of democratic nations against possible communist attack Collective security – “Attack against one is an attack against all” Collective security – “Attack against one is an attack against all” USSR responds with creation of Warsaw Pact (1955) USSR responds with creation of Warsaw Pact (1955) – Eastern European Soviet bloc nations (satellite nations) become “buffer zone” for USSR

17 The Division of Berlin

18 Crisis in Berlin June 1948, Soviet Union blockaded all surface routes into West Berlin. Attempt to cut off the divided city from western Europe and force it to surrender to communism June 1948, Soviet Union blockaded all surface routes into West Berlin. Attempt to cut off the divided city from western Europe and force it to surrender to communism Allies organized a massive airlift of supplies into the “island of democracy” Allies organized a massive airlift of supplies into the “island of democracy” Stalin was unwilling to directly confront the Allies and wouldn’t shoot at the planes Stalin was unwilling to directly confront the Allies and wouldn’t shoot at the planes May 1949, Soviets lifted blockade – Berlin remained a divided city surrounded by Communist territory May 1949, Soviets lifted blockade – Berlin remained a divided city surrounded by Communist territory

19 The Cold War in Asia Old imperialist system had collapsed; New nations were less responsive to US influence

20 Containment In Asia In ChinaIn Korea Occupation of Japan

21 Occupation of Japan 1945 – – 1951 Led by General Douglas MacArthur Led by General Douglas MacArthur New democratic constitution (MacArthur Constitution) New democratic constitution (MacArthur Constitution) Japanese economy rebuilt Japanese economy rebuilt Military protection provided by U.S. Military protection provided by U.S. Japan became strong U.S. ally Japan became strong U.S. ally

22 In the Philippines Independence granted on July 4, 1946 Independence granted on July 4, 1946 US maintained naval and air bases for most of the remainder of the 20 th century US maintained naval and air bases for most of the remainder of the 20 th century Ferdinand Marcos (non-communist) dictator ( ) Ferdinand Marcos (non-communist) dictator ( )

23 In China Communist Revolution in 1949 resulted in “2 Chinas” - The People’s Republic of China (Communist) and Nationalist China on Taiwan (Democratic); both claimed there could be only one official government of China Communist Revolution in 1949 resulted in “2 Chinas” - The People’s Republic of China (Communist) and Nationalist China on Taiwan (Democratic); both claimed there could be only one official government of China U.S. government was unable to reach a compromise settlement U.S. government was unable to reach a compromise settlement USSR and People’s Republic of China signed Sino-Soviet pact (1945) → USA fears worldwide conspiracy of Communist expansion USSR and People’s Republic of China signed Sino-Soviet pact (1945) → USA fears worldwide conspiracy of Communist expansion

24 Korean War [ ]

25 Syngman Rhee Kim Il-Sung “Domino Theory”

26 The Shifting Map of Korea [ ]

27 In Korea After WWII, Korean peninsula was divided at 38 th parallel North Korea – occupied by USSR (Communist) North Korea – occupied by USSR (Communist) South Korea – occupied by Allies (Democratic) South Korea – occupied by Allies (Democratic) 1950 – North Korean forces invaded the South 1950 – North Korean forces invaded the South US sent troops as part of United Nations forces to defend South Korea from Communist forces US sent troops as part of United Nations forces to defend South Korea from Communist forces

28 Korean “Conflict” was a different kind of war Never declared a war by US Congress Never declared a war by US Congress US was part of United Nations forces US was part of United Nations forces We didn’t win – truce was signed We didn’t win – truce was signed Truman (Commander in Chief) fired the very popular General Douglas MacArthur for insubordination when MacArthur publicly questioned Truman and suggested that the US should widen the war and use atomic weapons on China Truman (Commander in Chief) fired the very popular General Douglas MacArthur for insubordination when MacArthur publicly questioned Truman and suggested that the US should widen the war and use atomic weapons on China

29 Truman’s Domestic Policy Demobilization after World War II

30 To convert the wartime economy to a peacetime economy GI Bill of Rights GI Bill of Rights $ for education, business ventures, housing to help returning GI’s $ for education, business ventures, housing to help returning GI’s Employment Act of 1946 Employment Act of 1946 Commit government to full employment Commit government to full employment Get Tough policy on strikes that threatened national safety – threatened to use troops against RR workers, miners and steelworkers Get Tough policy on strikes that threatened national safety – threatened to use troops against RR workers, miners and steelworkers Taft-Hartley Act Taft-Hartley Act

31 Outlawed “closed shop” that required worker to join union before being hired Outlawed “closed shop” that required worker to join union before being hired States could pass “right to work” laws – worker had the right to work without being forced to join union States could pass “right to work” laws – worker had the right to work without being forced to join union Outlawed secondary boycotts Outlawed secondary boycotts President had power to invoke 80 day cooling off period in strikes that threatened national safety President had power to invoke 80 day cooling off period in strikes that threatened national safety

32 Election of 1948 Harry Truman Democratic Party Under dog “Give ‘em hell Harry” Thomas Dewey Republican Party Conservative Strom Thurmond States’ Rights Party “Dixiecrats” Anti-civil rights Henry Wallace Progressive Party Feared too aggressive foreign policy

33 Truman defeated Dewey In spite of what the headline read In spite of what the headline read Truman attempted a “Fair Deal” – Nat’l health insurance, aid to education, Civil Rights legislation, funds for public housing,  minimum wage Truman attempted a “Fair Deal” – Nat’l health insurance, aid to education, Civil Rights legislation, funds for public housing,  minimum wage Most was defeated because of political conflicts and increased importance of foreign policy Most was defeated because of political conflicts and increased importance of foreign policy In spite of what headline read, Truman defeated Dewey

34 The Cold War at Home

35 A New Red Scare To protect the country from Communist infiltration To protect the country from Communist infiltration 1947 – Loyalty Review Board 1947 – Loyalty Review Board 3 million+ employees of the Federal Government, investigated to weed out those suspected of being communists or communist sympathizers. 3 million+ employees of the Federal Government, investigated to weed out those suspected of being communists or communist sympathizers. Over 200 were fired and thousands of others resigned, many in protest over the investigation and the secrecy surrounding the evidence being collected about them. Over 200 were fired and thousands of others resigned, many in protest over the investigation and the secrecy surrounding the evidence being collected about them – Dennis et al v. United States 1951 – Dennis et al v. United States upheld constitutionality of Smith Act, that made it illegal to advocate overthrow of US Gov’t by force upheld constitutionality of Smith Act, that made it illegal to advocate overthrow of US Gov’t by force McCarran Internal Security Act McCarran Internal Security Act illegal to advocate establishment of totalitarian gov’t illegal to advocate establishment of totalitarian gov’t House Un-American Activities Committee House Un-American Activities Committee investigated gov’t officials, looked for Communists in Boy Scouts & Hollywood – “Hollywood Ten” investigated gov’t officials, looked for Communists in Boy Scouts & Hollywood – “Hollywood Ten” testify or else be held for contempt of Congress testify or else be held for contempt of Congress Edward R. Murrow vs. McCarthy – YouTube Clip….. Edward R. Murrow vs. McCarthy – YouTube Clip…..

36 Spy Cases Alger Hiss – State Department Alger Hiss – State Department Denied charges he was a Communist and had given secret documents to a confessed Communist Whittaker Chambers Denied charges he was a Communist and had given secret documents to a confessed Communist Whittaker Chambers Was convicted of perjury Was convicted of perjury Julius & Ethel Rosenberg Julius & Ethel Rosenberg US atomic scientists who were executed for giving Soviet scientists information that led to development of Soviet atomic weapons US atomic scientists who were executed for giving Soviet scientists information that led to development of Soviet atomic weapons

37 McCarthyism Senator Joseph McCarthy claimed Communists were working in the State Department Senator Joseph McCarthy claimed Communists were working in the State Department Tactics included Tactics included Unsupported accusations Unsupported accusations Reckless cruelty → “witch hunt” Reckless cruelty → “witch hunt” Bullying, black listing Bullying, black listing Cast suspicion on innocent people – destroyed reputations and careers Cast suspicion on innocent people – destroyed reputations and careers (McCarthy was later censured by the Senate)

38 Senator Margaret Chase Smith - spoke out against McCarthy - “Declaration of Conscience” “Declaration of Conscience” “The right to criticize: the right to hold unpopular beliefs; the right to protest; the right of independent thought. The exercise of these rights should not cost one single American citizen his reputation or his right to a livelihood…Otherwise none of us could call our souls our own.” “The right to criticize: the right to hold unpopular beliefs; the right to protest; the right of independent thought. The exercise of these rights should not cost one single American citizen his reputation or his right to a livelihood…Otherwise none of us could call our souls our own.”

39 Cold War in our Culture


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