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The Cold War 1945 - 1990. Who? The United States vs. the Soviet Union The United States vs. the Soviet Union.

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Presentation on theme: "The Cold War 1945 - 1990. Who? The United States vs. the Soviet Union The United States vs. the Soviet Union."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cold War

2 Who? The United States vs. the Soviet Union The United States vs. the Soviet Union

3 What? Tension and fears between the “free” and “communist” nations of the world Tension and fears between the “free” and “communist” nations of the world

4 Why? The former Allies during WWII had different views concerning the post-war world The former Allies during WWII had different views concerning the post-war world

5 Where? Global – in Europe, in Asia, and in Latin America Global – in Europe, in Asia, and in Latin America

6 How? “Weapons” Used Propaganda Propaganda Diplomatic moves Diplomatic moves Scientific competition Scientific competition Economic competition Economic competition Espionage Espionage Subversion Subversion

7 US Goal Containment of Communism Containment of Communism

8 Government Reorganization to help fight the Cold War Department of Defense Department of Defense To replace the War Department To replace the War Department National Security Council National Security Council To coordinate making of foreign policy To coordinate making of foreign policy Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) To gather intelligence information To gather intelligence information

9 Recommendations Increase spending on defense (4X what it had been) Increase spending on defense (4X what it had been) Create alliances with Non-Communist countries Create alliances with Non-Communist countries Convince the American public of the necessity of increased defense programs Convince the American public of the necessity of increased defense programs

10 The Cold War in Europe An “Iron Curtain” had descended across Europe 1. Truman Doctrine – military aid if threatened by Communism 2. Marshall Plan - $ to rebuild Europe 3. NATO – military alliance against Communism 4. Berlin Blockade/Airlift – support W. Berlin when USSR attempts take over

11 The Cold War in Asia Occupation of Japan (1945 – 1951) – Gen. MacArthur; new constitution written. (US Ally) Occupation of Japan (1945 – 1951) – Gen. MacArthur; new constitution written. (US Ally) Philippines – independence from USA – 1946 (US Ally) Philippines – independence from USA – 1946 (US Ally) Communist Revolution in China 1949 – Communist Revolution in China 1949 – People’s Republic of China (communist – main land) People’s Republic of China (communist – main land) vs. vs. Republic of China (non-communist – Taiwan) (US Ally) Republic of China (non-communist – Taiwan) (US Ally)

12 In Korea After WWII, Korean peninsula was divided at 38 th parallel North Korea – occupied by USSR (Communist) North Korea – occupied by USSR (Communist) South Korea – occupied by Allies (Democratic) South Korea – occupied by Allies (Democratic) 1950 – North Korean forces invaded the South 1950 – North Korean forces invaded the South US sent troops as part of United Nations forces to defend South Korea from Communist forces US sent troops as part of United Nations forces to defend South Korea from Communist forces

13 Korean “Conflict” was a different kind of war Never declared a war by US Congress Never declared a war by US Congress US was part of United Nations forces US was part of United Nations forces We didn’t win – truce was signed We didn’t win – truce was signed Truman (Commander in Chief) fired the very popular General Douglas MacArthur for insubordination when MacArthur publicly questioned Truman and suggested that the US should widen the war and use atomic weapons on China Truman (Commander in Chief) fired the very popular General Douglas MacArthur for insubordination when MacArthur publicly questioned Truman and suggested that the US should widen the war and use atomic weapons on China

14 Election of 1948 Harry Truman Democratic Party Under dog “Give ‘em hell Harry” Thomas Dewey Republican Party Conservative Strom Thurmond States’ Rights Party “Dixiecrats” Anti-civil rights Henry Wallace Progressive Party Feared too aggressive foreign policy

15 Truman’s Domestic Policy – “Fair Deal” Demobilization after World War II

16 To convert the wartime economy to a peacetime economy GI Bill of Rights GI Bill of Rights $ for education, business ventures, housing to help returning GI’s $ for education, business ventures, housing to help returning GI’s Employment Act of 1946 Employment Act of 1946 Commit government to full employment Commit government to full employment Get Tough policy on strikes that threatened national safety – threatened to use troops against RR workers, miners and steelworkers Get Tough policy on strikes that threatened national safety – threatened to use troops against RR workers, miners and steelworkers Taft-Hartley Act- Outlawed “closed shop” that required worker to join union before being hired Taft-Hartley Act- Outlawed “closed shop” that required worker to join union before being hired

17 Truman defeated Dewey In spite of what the headline read… Truman attempted a “Fair Deal” – Nat’l health insurance, aid to education, Civil Rights legislation, funds for public housing,  minimum wage Most of Truman’s ideas were defeated because of political conflicts and increased importance of foreign policy (Cold War!) In spite of what headline read, Truman defeated Dewey

18 The Cold War at Home

19 A New Red Scare To protect the country from Communist infiltration To protect the country from Communist infiltration McCarran Internal Security Act – illegal to advocate establishment of totalitarian gov’t McCarran Internal Security Act – illegal to advocate establishment of totalitarian gov’t House Un-American Activities Committee – investigated gov’t officials, looked for Communists in Boy Scouts & Hollywood (10)– testify or else be held for contempt of Congress House Un-American Activities Committee – investigated gov’t officials, looked for Communists in Boy Scouts & Hollywood (10)– testify or else be held for contempt of Congress

20 Spy Cases Alger Hiss – State Department Alger Hiss – State Department Denied charges he was a Communist and had given secret documents to a confessed Communist Whittaker Chambers Denied charges he was a Communist and had given secret documents to a confessed Communist Whittaker Chambers Was convicted of perjury Was convicted of perjury Julius & Ethel Rosenberg Julius & Ethel Rosenberg US atomic scientists who were executed for giving Soviet scientists information that led to development of Soviet atomic weapons US atomic scientists who were executed for giving Soviet scientists information that led to development of Soviet atomic weapons

21 McCarthyism Senator Joseph McCarthy claimed Communists were working in the State Department Senator Joseph McCarthy claimed Communists were working in the State Department Tactics included Tactics included Unsupported accusations Unsupported accusations Reckless cruelty → “witch hunt” Reckless cruelty → “witch hunt” Bullying, black listing Bullying, black listing Cast suspicion on innocent people – destroyed reputations and careers Cast suspicion on innocent people – destroyed reputations and careers (McCarthy was later censured by the Senate)

22 Cold War in our Culture


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