Presentation on theme: "Pre-Cold War Conferences"— Presentation transcript:
1 Pre-Cold War Conferences YaltaFebruary 1945Stalin, FDR, and ChurchillGermany into 4 zonesPartition of BerlinStalin promises free elections in E. EuropeSoviets would join war in PacificPotsdamJuly 1945Truman, Stalin, and AtleeTrials for top NazisAtomic Bomb announced to SovietsDifferences on Eastern Europe
2 The Cold War [1945-1991]: An Ideological Struggle Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [“Iron Curtain”]US & the Western DemocraciesGOAL “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. [George Kennan]GOAL spread world-wide CommunismMETHODOLOGIES:Espionage [KGB vs. CIA]Arms Race [nuclear escalation]Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy] “proxy wars”Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]
4 George Kennan [“X Article”]: CONTAINMENT Goals Means Actual Application Restoration of the balance of powerEncouragement of self-confidence in nations threatened by Soviet expansion.Long-term program of U.S. economic assistance [Marshall Plan]Reduction of Soviet ability to project outside power.Exploitation of tensions in international communism.Cooperation with communist regimes; [supporting Yugoslavia]
6 George Kennan [“X Article”]: CONTAINMENT Goals Means Actual Application Modification of the Soviet concept of international relations.Negotiating settlement of outstanding differences.Using “carrots & sticks’; containing Germany with an embrace and Russia at arms length.
7 Truman Doctrine“I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures. I believe that we must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way. I believe that our help should be primarily through economic and financial aid, which is essential to economic stability and orderly political processes.” (Greece and Turkey)
10 Berlin Airlift Statistics Duration: 462 days; June 26, 1948-Sept. 30, 1949.Flights: 278,228 189,963 U.S., 87,841 British, 424 French.Miles flown: 134 million (nearly 1 1/2 times distance to sun).Deaths from crashes: 31 Americans, 39 British, at least 9 Germans.Busiest 24 hours: April 15-16, 1949; 1,398 flights (one landing almost every minute), 12,940 tons of cargo (equal to 22 trains with 50 railcars each).Cargo delivered: 2,326,406 tons, two-thirds of it coal.Candy parachuted: 23 tons.
17 HUAC House Committee on Un-American Activities House Un-American Activities CommitteeInvestigate possible communist activity1947 : movie industryHollywood had a number of communistsWanted to rid Hollywood of Communist influence
18 The Hollywood Ten What were they accused of?? How were they affected?? DisloyaltyBeing CommunistExposing moviegoers to Communist propagandaHow were they affected??PrisonBlacklisted (approx 500 people)
19 Alger Hiss Accused of?? How was he affected? Spying for the Soviet UnionPassing government documents to the SUPerjuryHow was he affected?Convicted of perjury and jailed
20 Ethel and Julius Rosenberg What were they accused of?Spying for the Soviet UnionPassing information about the atomic bombHow were they affected?Convicted and executed
21 “McCarthyism” Senator Joseph McCarthy Needed a winning issue for reelectionCommunists in the governmentDuring a speech he claimed to hold a list of 205 Communists in State Dept.Kept changing numberWhen challenged he responded with another accusation