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Pre-Cold War Conferences

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Presentation on theme: "Pre-Cold War Conferences"— Presentation transcript:

1 Pre-Cold War Conferences
Yalta February 1945 Stalin, FDR, and Churchill Germany into 4 zones Partition of Berlin Stalin promises free elections in E. Europe Soviets would join war in Pacific Potsdam July 1945 Truman, Stalin, and Atlee Trials for top Nazis Atomic Bomb announced to Soviets Differences on Eastern Europe

2 The Cold War [1945-1991]: An Ideological Struggle
Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [“Iron Curtain”] US & the Western Democracies GOAL  “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. [George Kennan] GOAL  spread world-wide Communism METHODOLOGIES: Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] Arms Race [nuclear escalation] Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy]  “proxy wars” Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]

3 The Bipolarization of Europe

4 George Kennan [“X Article”]: CONTAINMENT Goals Means Actual Application
Restoration of the balance of power Encouragement of self-confidence in nations threatened by Soviet expansion. Long-term program of U.S. economic assistance [Marshall Plan] Reduction of Soviet ability to project outside power. Exploitation of tensions in international communism. Cooperation with communist regimes; [supporting Yugoslavia]

5 The Marshall Plan

6 George Kennan [“X Article”]: CONTAINMENT Goals Means Actual Application
Modification of the Soviet concept of international relations. Negotiating settlement of outstanding differences. Using “carrots & sticks’; containing Germany with an embrace and Russia at arms length.

7 Truman Doctrine “I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures. I believe that we must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way. I believe that our help should be primarily through economic and financial aid, which is essential to economic stability and orderly political processes.” (Greece and Turkey)

8 The Division of Berlin

9 Berlin Airlift -map.svg

10 Berlin Airlift Statistics
Duration: 462 days; June 26, 1948-Sept. 30, 1949. Flights: 278,228  189,963 U.S., 87,841 British, 424 French. Miles flown: 134 million (nearly 1 1/2 times distance to sun). Deaths from crashes: 31 Americans, 39 British, at least 9 Germans. Busiest 24 hours: April 15-16, 1949; 1,398 flights (one landing almost every minute), 12,940 tons of cargo (equal to 22 trains with 50 railcars each). Cargo delivered: 2,326,406 tons, two-thirds of it coal. Candy parachuted: 23 tons.

11 Berlin Wall –

12 National Defense Budget [1940-1964]

13 Korean War [ ] “Dean, we’ve got to stop the sons-of-bitches no matter what.” - Harry Truman

14 Korean War [ ] Kim Il-Sung Syngman Rhee “Domino Theory” – Fear that if one country fell to Communism, others around it would as well.

15 The Shifting Map of Korea [1950-1953]

16 The Cold War at Home

17 HUAC House Committee on Un-American Activities
House Un-American Activities Committee Investigate possible communist activity 1947 : movie industry Hollywood had a number of communists Wanted to rid Hollywood of Communist influence

18 The Hollywood Ten What were they accused of?? How were they affected??
Disloyalty Being Communist Exposing moviegoers to Communist propaganda How were they affected?? Prison Blacklisted (approx 500 people)

19 Alger Hiss Accused of?? How was he affected?
Spying for the Soviet Union Passing government documents to the SU Perjury How was he affected? Convicted of perjury and jailed

20 Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
What were they accused of? Spying for the Soviet Union Passing information about the atomic bomb How were they affected? Convicted and executed

21 “McCarthyism” Senator Joseph McCarthy
Needed a winning issue for reelection Communists in the government During a speech he claimed to hold a list of 205 Communists in State Dept. Kept changing number When challenged he responded with another accusation

22 McCarthy Telegram to Truman

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