Middle Kingdom – heavy trade with Nubia brought prosperity to region Powerful kingdom developed at Kerma; from start of 12 th Dynasty it is called “Kush” 12 th Dynasty pharaohs construct fortresses at cataracts as protection against Kush Inability of 13 th Dynasty pharaohs to upkeep forts, turns them into permanent settlements -1720 – collapse of unified Egypt meant no support for forts
Kush (Nubia) Some rulers in Lower Nubia claim pharaonic status Unable to hold of Kush; by 1650 – all of Lower Nubia peacefully accepts Upper Nubian takeover
Hyksos (15 th Dynasty, 1650-1540) Egyptian term: hekau khasut “chieftains of foreign lands” Josephus quoting Manetho: … incredibly out of parts of the east men of despicable ethnicity marched boldly against the land, and seizing it easily by overwhelming force without fighting a battle. And having taken prisoner those who were the leaders here, they thereafter savagely burned the cities and demolished the gods’ shrines. They treated all the inhabitants most hatefully, slaughtering some, and leading into slavery the children and wives of others.
Hyksos Canaanites already entering into Egypt; collapse in 1720 probably allowed even more to flow into Delta region. 1650, one group of newcomers able to take over Delta, defeating local rulers - Capitol at Avaris Shortly after 1650 – 13 Dynasty in Thebes dies out and is replaced by local dynasty (17 th Dynasty) - Paid tribute to Hyksos - Likely had marriage ties
Hyksos 2. Military : horse-drawn chariots with spoked wheels; bronze helmets, armor of bronze scales 1. Metal technology – ability to make bronze 3. Composite bow
Hyksos vs. Thebes Theban dynasty is subordinate to Hyksos and isolated Kush (Nubia) and Hyksos form alliance Thebes builds up army and strike before Kush and Hyksos can attack it
Hyksos capital at Avaris Egyptians control Upper Egypt from Thebes Nubia (Kush) controls far south
Began the Theban attempt to expel Hyksos from Egypt Seqenenre II (1559-1554) of the 17 th Dynasty
Khamose – son of Seqenenra Stele commemorating his successful campaigns in the north against the Hyksos Manages to get all the way to Avaris, but doesn’t take the city
Ahmose (1550-1525) Brother of Khamose First king of eighteenth dynasty After 4 attempts, kick Hyksos out of Avaris and out of Egypt. Campaigns in Nubia Married to his sister Ahmose Nefertari
Son of Ahmose Campaigns in Nubia First pharaoh buried in the Valley of the Kings Memphis – political capital Thebes – religious capital Amenhotep I (1525-1504)
Extensive work on the Temple of Amun at Karnak Thutmosis I (1504-1491) Not related to Amenhotep by blood – possibly married into royal family Began with campaigns in south against Nubia Then moved north against Syria.
Thutmosis I Ahmose son of Ebana: “His majesty [Thutmosis I] arrived at Naharin (N’-h’-ry-n’ = Mittani in N. Syria)… his majesty made a great slaughter among them.” Ahomse-pen-nekhbet: “Again I served for King Okheperkere [Thutmosis I], triumphant; I captured for him in the country of Naharin (N’-h-ry-n’), 21 hands, one horse, and one chariot” Ineni: “[Thutmosis I] the Good God, who smites the Nubians, lord of might, who overthrows the Asiatics”
Thutmosis II (1491-1479) Younger son of Thutmosis I Married his half-sister Hatshepsut
Thutmosis III (1479-1425) Hatshepsut (1479-1458)
Half-sister and wife of Thutmose II ; aunt of Thutmose III Originally named regent for Thutmose III, but takes throne and becomes pharaoh
Year 24: “The tribute of the chief of Assur…” Year 33: “Behold, his majesty went north capturing the towns and laying waste the settlements of that foe of wretched Naharin… His majesty arrived at the city of Niy, going southward, when his majesty returned, having set up his tablet in Naharin, extending the boundaries of Egypt” “The tribute of the chief of Shinar [i.e. Babylon]…” “The tribute of Hatti the Great…”
Amenhotep II(1428-1397) “Then the ruler of Naharin, the ruler of Hatti, and the ruler of Sangar (Babylon) acknowledged the great victory which I had performed, everyone imitating his neighbor with every present of every foreign country. They spoke from their hearts on behalf of their ancestors, in order to request gifts from his Majesty and in quest of the giving of the breath of life to them.”
Thutmosis IV (1397-1388) Dream Stele – justifies his accession to (or usurpation of?) the throne
“The king of Upper and Lower Egypt, lord of the cult act, Nebmaatre, chosen of Re, the son of Re Amonhotep, ruler of Thebes, given life; the great royal wife Tiye, may she live. The name of her father is Yuya; the name of her mother is Tuya. Marvels which were brought to his majesty, (life, prosperity, health), the daughter of the Chief (wr) of Nahrin, Shuttarna, Kelu-Heba, and the choicest of her female entertainers: 317 women.”
During reign of Amenhotep III, the pharaoh began to increasingly focus religion on the Aton, the solar orb; his son Amenhotep IV follows suit Year 4: began to build city for his god, calling it Akhetaton “Horizon of the Sun Disk” or “The Transfigured Spirit of the Solar Orb” Moved capital from Thebes to Akhetaton Year 8 or 9: changed writing of the name Aton, removing hieroglyphs symbolizing sun as falcon Began to have names of other gods removed from stele, especially Amun.
Akh – “glorified being of light” Akhetaton – “place where Aton is transformed into the glorified being” Amenhotep IV changes name to: Akhenaton – proclaiming that he is the transfigured form of the Aton
Religious Revolution Complete change in religious beliefs. Aton was the highest god, and the only other gods were the king and his wife Nefertiti Afterlife could only be bestowed by the divine royal couple Special favors could only be asked for from the Aton through the divine royal couple Worship of no other god was allowed, including all household deities. Evidence that the royal couple became a substituted source of veneration.
Smenkhkare (1336-1334) Names Smenkhkare (a son?) as co-regent with Akhenaton Takes Nefertiti’s place as third divinity (along with the Aton and with Akhenaton) Nefertiti disappears from records around year 14 or so (very likely died) Akhenaton marries Meritaton, one of his daughters and raises her to her mother’s position Akhenaton dies in his year 17, less than year later, Smenkhkare dies too
Tutankhaton/Tutankhamun (c. 1334-1325) 9 or 10 when he gets throne; Ay, father of Nefertiti rules as regent Tut marries his half-sister Restoration of old religion. Dies at age of 18 or 19