2The Nile River1. The Nile River, 4000 miles long, is the world’s longest river. 2. The Nile River Valley provided the early Egyptians with rich farm land while the surrounding deserts gave them protection from foreign invaders. 3. Cataracts, which are rock- filled rapids, protected Egypt in the south. 4. The Mediterranean and Red Seas gave the Egyptians a way to trade with people outside of Egypt.
4Egyptian GovernmentThe earliest Egyptian rulers were village chiefs. 1. Over time, a few strong chiefs united their villages to form kingdoms. 2. The strongest of the kingdoms eventually conquered the weaker kingdoms and by 4000 B.C. there were only two, the Upper and Lower Kingdoms. 3. Around 3100 B.C., Narmer, the king of the Upper Kingdom, conquered Lower Egypt, uniting the two. 4. Narmer became Egypt’s first pharaoh.
5Dynasties 1. Narmer began the first ruling dynasty of Egypt. A dynasty is a group of rulers from the samefamily.Egypt was ruled by 31 different dynasties.These dynasties are divided into three separate“kingdoms”.a. The Old Kingdomb. The Middle Kingdomc. The New Kingdom
6Old Kingdom The Old Kingdom lasted from 2600 B.C. to 2300 B.C. As Egypt grew and prospered, the pharaohsdeveloped a bureaucracy, which is a body ofofficials who are used to carry out various dutieswithin the government.The pharaoh was still the head of the governmentand the people of Egypt considered him a god on earthwho controlled Egypt’s welfare.3. Egypt practiced a polytheistic religion.
8Life After DeathThe Egyptians believed in an afterlife. 1. In order for a person’s spirit to make the journey to the afterlife, they needed their body. 2. To protect the pharaoh’s body, they were embalmed. 3. The body’s organs would be removed and then salt would be used to dry out and preserve the body. 4. The body would then be filled with spices, cleaned and wrapped with linen. 5. The wrapped body was known as a mummy.
9The PyramidsPyramids were built as the tomb of the pharaohs. 1. The pyramids protected the pharaohs bodies and held the supplies they would need in the afterlife. 2. The pyramid were made of huge blocks of stone using human labor. 3. The largest of the pyramids is the Great Pyramid at Giza, which is the only Ancient Wonder of the World still in existence. 4. The Step Pyramid is the oldest pyramid in existence.
10The Middle Kingdom1. Around 2300 B.C. the Old Kingdom collapsed due tocivil war.In 2100 B.C. a new dynasty came to power and theMiddle Kingdom began (it went to1670 B.C.).The Middle Kingdom was a golden age of stability,prosperity and achievement.Egypt conquered new lands and forced them to paytribute, or forced payments, to Egypt.The arts grew with wall paintings, sculptures andliterature.The pharaohs quit building pyramids and insteadwere buries in tombs cut into the cliffs of the Valley of theKings.
12The HyksosIn 1670 B.C. the Hyksos (from western Asia) invaded Egypt. 1. The Hyksos brought an end to the Middle Kingdom. 2. The Hyksos defeated the Egyptians because had horse-drawn chariots and weapons made of bronze and iron – the Egyptians still used weapons made of copper and stone. 3. The Hyksos ruled Egypt for 150 years and introduced the horse and chariot, the compound bow, improved battle axes, and advanced fortification techniques into Egypt
13The New Kingdom Around 1550 B.C., Ahmose drove the Hyksos out of Egypt.Ahmose’s reign was thebeginning of the New Kingdom,which lasted until 1080 B.C.During the New Kingdom,Egypt was at the height of itspower.Most pharaohs during thisperiod worked to conquer newlands, which were forced to paytribute.The Egyptians made slavesout of their prisoners of war.
14Hatshepsut and Thutmose III In 1479 B.C., Thutmose became pharaoharound the age of five.Because he was so young, his step-motherHatshepsut acted as regent, or someone who rulesfor a child until the child is old enough to rule.When he Thutmose turned 20, Hatshepsutrefused to step down and ended up ruling aspharaoh until she died (she ruled around 22 years).Later, all of the monuments built to Hatshepsutwere defaced.
16King Tut 1. Tutankhamen, more commonly known as “King Tut”, became pharaoh at the age of 10.Tut ruled for nine years beforehe died.Tut is mainly rememberedbecause his tomb, which wasdiscovered by Howard Carter in1992.The tomb contained Tut’smummy and other incredibletreasures.
18The End of the New Kingdom 1. After King Tut, Egypt became a great power againunder the leadership of Ramses II.After Ramses’ reign, later pharaohs had troublekeeping Egypt’s neighbor’s under control.One big problem was Egypt had no iron to makeweapons and they had to spend a great deal to buythem.By 1150 B.C., Egypt only consisted of the Nile RiverValley.During the 900’s B.C., Egypt came under the rule ofseveral outside groups and were eventuallyconquered by the Assyrians.
19Egyptian Advancements The Egyptian civilization made many advances over thecourse of it’s history.Early Egyptians developed geometry, which is themathematics of points, lines, angles, surfaces, and solids.3. The reed plant papyrus was used to produce paper.The Egyptians developed hieroglyphics, which weresymbols that stood for objects and ideas.In the course of embalming, Egyptians learned a greatdeal about the human body and Egyptian doctors used herbsand drugs to treat illnesses, stitched up cuts and set brokenbones.The Egyptians developed principles of astronomy andinvented a 365 day calendar divided into 12 months.