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Chapter 2- Ancient Egypt

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1 Chapter 2- Ancient Egypt
Section 1- The Nile Valley

2 Settling the Nile Between B.C. (Paleolithic Era) hunters and gatherers moved into Nile River Valley and began farming. Egyptians referred the Nile as a gift because of how heavily they relied on it. The Nile is the worlds largest river. (4,000 miles long)

3 Geographic Features The Nile Valley was protected:
On both sides of the Nile Valley, there were large deserts- Sahara and Eastern desert To the South were dangerous cataracts that blocked enemy boats In the North there were the delta marshes that offered no harbors for invaders

4 Egyptian Technologies
Egyptians created: Shadoof- A bucket attached to a small pole to lift water from the Nile to the basins. Geometry to help them measure land. Papyrus- A reed plant that grew along the Nile used to create baskets, sandals, river rafts and paper making. Hieroglyphics- A complex writing system made up of a combination of both pictures and sound symbols. Egyptian Technologies

5 A United Egypt Egyptians traded with Mesopotamia
In order to help organize trade, Egypt developed a system of government. Originally village chiefs united groups of villages into small kingdoms. Eventually, Egypt was split up into two areas: In the Nile Delta (North) was Lower Egypt, upriver (to the South) lay Upper Egypt. King Narmer of Upper Egypt took over Lower Egypt, uniting Egypt. Narmer created the first dynasty- a line of rulers from one family.

6 Egypt’s Social Classes
Upper Class- Nobles, priests and wealthy government officials Middle Class- Business owners and artisans Lower Class- Farmers, unskilled workers, physical laborers

7 Section 2- Egypt’s Old Kingdom

8 The Old Kingdom (2600 B.C.- 2300 B.C.)
Egyptian kings were also called pharaohs. Egyptians believed the unity of the kingdom relied on a strong leader. They believed pharaohs were descendants of Re, the Egyptian sun god. The pharaoh was a god on Earth. The Egyptians worshiped deities- gods or goddeses. They believed these deities controlled the forces of nature and human activities.

9 Egyptian Deities Re- Main god, Egyptian sun god
Hapi- God of the Nile River Isis-Represented the loyal wife and mother. She also ruled over the dead with her husband. Osiris- Husband of Isis, ruler of the dead.

10 Egyptians believed life in the next world was better than life on Earth. In the important “Book of the Dead”, it explained how the god Osiris would meet newcomers at the entrance of the new world. If they had led good lives, he would grant them life after death. Egyptians created embalming to prepare their pharaohs body for the afterlife. This process created mummies. Life After Death

11 The Pyramids Pyramids were giant stone tombs for pharaohs
The pyramids took many years and hours of back breaking labor to build. About 2540 B.C., the Egyptians built the largest pyramid, the Great Pyramid. This pyramid was built for King Khufu in Giza. One of the 7 wonders of the Ancient World, and the only still standing. Egyptians also created the 365-day calendar, with 12 months and 3 seasons.

12 Section 3- The Egyptian Empire

13 The Middle Kingdom (2050 B.C.- 1670 B.C)
The Middle Kingdom began when a new dynasty moved Egypt’s capital from Memphis to Thebes. These pharaohs expanded Egypt’s territory Art flourished and instead of pyramids, kings now had their tombs cut into cliffs. This was known as the Valley of the Kings. In 1670, the Hyksos conquered Egypt.Ahmose led an uprising that drove them out 120 years later.

14 The New Kingdom (1550 B.C.- 1080 B.C.)
Known as Egypt’s most glorious period. Hatshepsut was one of Egypt’s few female rulers. She grew trade and brought wealth to Egypt. Thutmose III regained lost territory. Amenhotep IV (or Akhenaton) and wife Nefertiti tried to change the religion of Egypt to worship one god, Aton. They failed.

15 Important rulers Tutankhamen or Tut, died at a young age. His tomb was discovered untouched and taught the modern world much about Ancient Egypt. Ramses II reigned for 66 years and was the most successful ruler. Egypt was conquered by several outside forces. Eventually, in 670 B.C. Egypt was taken over by the Assyrians.

16 Section 4- The Civilization of Kush

17 Nubia The Nubian or Kush region was located South of Egypt along the Nile river. The kingdom of Kerma in Kush would often trade with Egypt. Thutmose III invaded and conquered Nubia. In 850 B.C., as Egypt declined, Nubians saw an opportunity to break away and created the kingdom of Kush and a new city, Napata.

18 The Rise of Kush Kush traded with Egypt and soon became rich and strong, enough to take over Egypt. Kushite King Kashta started the dynasty that ruled both Egypt and Kush. Like the Egyptians, Kushites built small pyramids to bury their kings. The Kushites eventually fell to the Assyrians, but learned about iron weapons from them. Kushites then built a new capital city in Meroe. There, they became a large center for trade.

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