2 The Middle KingdomAbout 2300 B.C. the pharaohs lost control of Egypt as nobles battled one another.A new dynasty came to power & moved the capital to Thebes.There they restored order and stability beginning the Middle Kingdom.
3 The Middle KingdomThe Middle Kingdom lasted from 2050 B.C. to 1670 B.C.During this time, Egyptians took control of more land.Captured NubiaAttacked present day Syria
4 The Middle KingdomThe conquered people had to send tributes to the pharaohs.The money was used to add more waterways & dams.They also built a canal between the Nile River & the Red Sea.
5 The Middle KingdomDuring the Middle Kingdom, they would paint the wall of the tombs.Sculptors would create carvings & statues of the pharaohs as everyday people.Instead of pyramids, pharaohs tombs were built into cliffs west of the Nile River – Valley of the Kings
7 Who Were the Hyksos?The Middle Kingdom ended with an invasion by the Hyksos.They were from western Asia & invaded on chariots through the desert.They used weapons made of bronze and iron.
8 Who Were the Hyksos? The footed Egyptian soldiers were no match. The Hyksos ruled Egypt for 150 years.Around 1550 B.C., Ahmose, and Egyptian prince led a rebellion & drove the Hyksos out of Egypt.
9 The New Kingdom Ahmose’s reign began a period called the New Kingdom. The New Kingdom lasted from 1550 B.C. to 1080 B.C.During this Kingdom, Egypt reached the height of its glory.
10 The New KingdomBy 1473 B.C. a queen came into power called Hatshepsut.She eventually became pharaoh, one of the only few female ones.She was more interested in trade than conquest.
11 The New KingdomShe had Egyptian traders sail along the coast of East Africa.These trade journeys made Egypt extremely wealthy.Hatshepsut used some of the wealth to build monuments in the Valley of the Kings.
12 The New KingdomWhen Hatshepsut died, her nephew, Thutmose III became pharaoh.His armies began aggressive wars of conquest.Egypt controlled from north of the Euphrates to Nubia south of Egypt.
13 The New Kingdom Thutmose’s empire grew rich from trade & conquests. He took the conquered people’s money and enslaved their people.These captives rebuilt the capital city of Thebes.Slavery was now common in Egypt.
14 The Legacies of Two Pharaohs 1370 B.C. Amenhotep IV came came to the throne with his wife, Nefertiti.He realized Egypt’s priests were gaining power at the expense of the pharaohs.He did away with Egypt’s old gods & goddesses.
15 The Legacies of Two Pharaohs He introduced a new religion that worshipped only one god, Aton.When the priests protested, he took away their titles, lands & temples.Amenhotep then changed his name to Akhenaton.
16 The Legacies of Two Pharaohs To the Egyptians Akhenaton’s attacks on the gods was an attack on Egypt itself.He became so devoted to his new religion that he neglected his duties as pharaoh.He did not respond to an attack by the Hittites, resulting losing in a lot of land.
17 The Legacies of Two Pharaohs When Akhenton died, his son in law, Tutankhamen, became pharaoh.He was only 10 years old, but relied on help from palace officials.He restored the old religion, but died suddenly after ruling for only 9 years.
18 The End of the New Kingdom The most effective pharaoh after King Tut was Ramses II.He reigned for 66 years and rebuilt the empire.He launched a temple building program.
19 The End of the New Kingdom The most magnificent temple built under Ramses was Karnak at Thebes.The temples were considered houses for their gods & goddesses.The temples also served as banks.
20 The End of the New Kingdom After Ramses, Egypt’s power to begin to fade.Neighboring territories began to rebel.They were attacked by people from across the sea that had strong iron weapons.
21 The End of the New Kingdom By 1150 B.C., Egypt had lost their empire and only controlled the Nile Delta.One group after another took control of Egypt.LibyansPeople of KushAssyrians