2 The Middle Kingdoms (pgs. 59-67) About 2300 B.C., pharaohs lost control of Egypt due to nobles fighting over power.Finally, a new dynasty of pharaohs came to power and moved the capital south, from Memphis to Thebes (theebz).This began the Middle Kingdom which lasted from about 2050 B.C. to 1670 B.C. and was atime of stability, prosperity, andachievement.
3 Drive For More Land Egypt took control of other lands. - captured Nubia to the south- attacked what is now SyriaForced conquered people to send tribute, forced payments.Pharaohs added:- more waterways and dams- increased amount of farmed land- built canal between Nile River and Red Sea
4 The Arts BlossomDuring the Middle Kingdom, arts, literature, and architecture thrived.- painting- sculpting- poetry- songA new form of architecture emerged. Instead of building pyramids, pharaohs had their tombs cut into cliffs – Valley of the Kings
5 End of Middle KingdomThe Middle Kingdom came to an end in 1670 B.C. when the Hyksos (hihk*sahs), from western Asia, conquered Egypt.Hyksos ruled Egypt for about 150 years.
6 The New Kingdom (pgs )Around 1550 B.C., an Egyptian prince named Ahmose (ahm*ohs) drove Hyksos out of Egypt.Ahmose’s reign began the period known as the New Kingdom, 1550 B.C. to about 1080 B.C.During the New Kingdom, Egypt was at the height of its glory and grew richer and more powerful.
7 A Woman RulerAbout 1473 B.C., a queen named Hatshepsut (hat*SHEHP*soot) came to power in Egypt.First woman to rule Egypt.Hatshepsut was more interested in trade than conquest. Trade journeys brought great wealth to Egypt.
8 Thutmose IIIThutmose III (thoot*moh*suh) became pharaoh after Hatshepsut’s death.Under Thutmose’s reign:* aggressive wars of conquest* empire grew rich from trade and tribute*enslaved many prisoners of war
9 The Legacies of Two Pharaohs (pgs. 64 & 65) About 1370 B.C., Amenhotep IV (ah*muhn*hoh*tehp) came to the throne.Helped by his wife, Nefertiti (nehf*uhr*teet*ee).Amenhotep thought priests had too much power so introduced new monotheistic (belief in one god) religion – Aton (ah*tuhn)Most Egyptians refused to accept new religion.Changed his name to Akhenaton (ahk*nah*tuhn).Akhenaton neglected his duties as pharaoh and Egypt’s empire greatly diminished.
10 The Boy KingTutankhamen (too*tang*kah*muhn), better known as King Tut, inherited the throne when Akhenaton died.The new pharaoh was only about 9 years old and only ruled for 9 years before dying unexpectedly (suffered a fall or murdered?).Became most famous of all pharaohs after aBritish archaeologist found his tomb in 1922.The tomb had not been looted or robbed and contained incredible treasures, including a brilliant gold mask of the young pharaoh’s face.
12 The End of the New Kingdom (pgs. 65-67) Ramses II (ram*seez) was one of the most effective pharaohs of the New Kingdom.He reigned for 66 years, from 1279 B.C. to 1213 B.C.Under Ramses II, Egyptians regained lands in western Asia and many temples were built.The most magnificent was Karnak at Thebes.
13 Egypt’s Decline and Fall After Ramses II, Egypt’s power began to decline.By 1150 B.C., the Egyptians had lost their empire and controlled only the Nile delta.Beginning in the 900s B.C., Egypt was ruled by:- Libyans- Kush (760 B.C.)- Assyrians (670 B.C.)