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Chapter 2 / Section 3 The Egyptian Empire. The Middle Kingdoms (pgs. 59-67)  About 2300 B.C., pharaohs lost control of Egypt due to nobles fighting over.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 / Section 3 The Egyptian Empire. The Middle Kingdoms (pgs. 59-67)  About 2300 B.C., pharaohs lost control of Egypt due to nobles fighting over."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2 / Section 3 The Egyptian Empire

2 The Middle Kingdoms (pgs. 59-67)  About 2300 B.C., pharaohs lost control of Egypt due to nobles fighting over power.  Finally, a new dynasty of pharaohs came to power and moved the capital south, from Memphis to Thebes (theebz).  This began the Middle Kingdom which lasted from about 2050 B.C. to 1670 B.C. and was a time of stability, prosperity, and time of stability, prosperity, and achievement. achievement.

3 Drive For More Land  Egypt took control of other lands. - captured Nubia to the south - captured Nubia to the south - attacked what is now Syria - attacked what is now Syria  Forced conquered people to send tribute, forced payments.  Pharaohs added: - more waterways and dams - more waterways and dams - increased amount of farmed land - increased amount of farmed land - built canal between Nile River and Red Sea - built canal between Nile River and Red Sea

4 The Arts Blossom  During the Middle Kingdom, arts, literature, and architecture thrived. - painting - painting - sculpting - sculpting - poetry - poetry - song - song  A new form of architecture emerged. Instead of building pyramids, pharaohs had their tombs cut into cliffs – Valley of the Kings

5 End of Middle Kingdom  The Middle Kingdom came to an end in 1670 B.C. when the Hyksos (hihk*sahs), from western Asia, conquered Egypt.  Hyksos ruled Egypt for about 150 years.

6 The New Kingdom (pgs. 61-62)  Around 1550 B.C., an Egyptian prince named Ahmose (ahm*ohs) drove Hyksos out of Egypt.  Ahmose’s reign began the period known as the New Kingdom, 1550 B.C. to about 1080 B.C.  During the New Kingdom, Egypt was at the height of its glory and grew richer and more powerful.

7 A Woman Ruler  About 1473 B.C., a queen named Hatshepsut (hat*SHEHP*soot) came to power in Egypt.  First woman to rule Egypt.  Hatshepsut was more interested in trade than conquest. Trade journeys brought great wealth to Egypt.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s9jmZiy_T-c&feature=related

8 Thutmose III  Thutmose III (thoot*moh*suh) became pharaoh after Hatshepsut’s death.  Under Thutmose’s reign: * aggressive wars of conquest * empire grew rich from trade and tribute *enslaved many prisoners of war

9 The Legacies of Two Pharaohs (pgs. 64 & 65)  About 1370 B.C., Amenhotep IV (ah*muhn*hoh*tehp) came to the throne.  Helped by his wife, Nefertiti (nehf*uhr*teet*ee).  Amenhotep thought priests had too much power so introduced new monotheistic (belief in one god) religion – Aton (ah*tuhn)  Most Egyptians refused to accept new religion.  Changed his name to Akhenaton (ahk*nah*tuhn).  Akhenaton neglected his duties as pharaoh and Egypt’s empire greatly diminished.

10 The Boy King  Tutankhamen (too*tang*kah*muhn), better known as King Tut, inherited the throne when Akhenaton died.  The new pharaoh was only about 9 years old and only ruled for 9 years before dying unexpectedly (suffered a fall or murdered?).  Became most famous of all pharaohs after a British archaeologist found his tomb in 1922. British archaeologist found his tomb in 1922.  The tomb had not been looted or robbed and contained incredible treasures, including a brilliant gold mask of the young pharaoh’s face.

11 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t3F4dEEQ OzE&feature=related

12 The End of the New Kingdom (pgs. 65-67)  Ramses II (ram*seez) was one of the most effective pharaohs of the New Kingdom.  He reigned for 66 years, from 1279 B.C. to 1213 B.C.  Under Ramses II, Egyptians regained lands in western Asia and many temples were built.  The most magnificent was Karnak at Thebes.

13 Egypt’s Decline and Fall  After Ramses II, Egypt’s power began to decline.  By 1150 B.C., the Egyptians had lost their empire and controlled only the Nile delta.  Beginning in the 900s B.C., Egypt was ruled by: - Libyans - Libyans - Kush (760 B.C.) - Kush (760 B.C.) - Assyrians (670 B.C.) - Assyrians (670 B.C.)


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