Presentation on theme: "Outline Pre-industrial Marriage Patterns Control of women’s sexuality"— Presentation transcript:
1Outline Pre-industrial Marriage Patterns Control of women’s sexuality Families and childrenModernization and change in marriage patternsThe divorce revolutionViolence in the familyChild abuse
2IntroductionMarriage is found in all human societies, although in different formsMarriages may be between one man and one woman (monogamy)On man and multiple women (polygyny)One woman and multiple men (polyandry)
3Pre-industrial Marriage Patterns Most pre-industrial societies have permitted polygyny, very few societies have permitted polyandry.Male sexual jealousy means that polyandry is often difficult. Usually involves brothers, works best with only two brothers.
4Type of marriage differs depending on type of society Monogamy is most common in hunting and gathering societies, polygyny is most common in horticultural and agrarian societies.
5In all societies, men typically marry younger women, women typically marry older men. Women are most likely to marry someone with greater resources and status than themselves (referred to as hypergamy)
6This can pose problems for low status men, who can find it difficult to get married. Many groups are endogamous – members are obligated to marry within the group
7For example, President Barack Obama’s father was from Kenya, an agrarian society, and his ethnic group was Luo.As a Luo, Barack Obama Senior was expected to marry a Luo, which he did in 1954 (his first wife Kezia).Later he traveled to the United States, where he met Barack Obama’s mother.
8The opposite of endogamy is exogamy – marrying outside of the group
9Bridewealth and DowryBridewealth is a payment of goods and or services by the groom to the bride’s parents.Dowry is the money and goods a bride’s family gives to her husband when she marries.
10Most pre-industrial societies have bridewealth customs In highly stratified agrarian societies, dowry is common.Our custom of the bride’s family paying for the wedding is a remnant of a dowry system.
11Rules of descentAll societies have rules of descent – how descent is tracedFour patterns of descent – patrilineal, matrilineal, bilateral and double descent
12Patrilineal descent traces the family line from father to son Matrilineal descent traces the family line from mother’s brother to sister’s son.Bilateral descent traces the family line through both the father and motherDouble descent recognizes both father and mother’s lines, but they typically have different functions
14Rules of residenceMost societies have a customs determining the residence of a couple after they are married.Patrilocal means the couple lives with the husband’s parents.Matrilocal means the couple lives with the wife’s parents
15The majority of pre-industrial societies are patrilocal.
16Control of women’s sexuality In most pre-industrial societies, there is a great deal of concern with controlling the sexuality of womenStems from male concerns with paternity certainty
17Control of women’s sexuality is most common in patrilineal societies, where sons inherit from their fathers, and least common in matrilineal societies, where sons inherit from their uncle (mother’s brother).
18In most patrilineal societies, the penalty for adultery for women is high. E.g. Hester Prynne, current Sharia (traditional Islamic) law
19Women’s sexual behavior is also indirectly controlled Foot binding in ChinaWomen are forbidden from working outside of the home, getting an education, going out unchaperoned.
20In many African societies today, women have their sexuality controlled by clitoridectomy (cutting out of the clitoris) and infibulation (sewing up of the vagina)
22Menstrual taboosLikely an indirect way of controlling women’s sexualityWomen are banished to huts during their menstrual periodWay of letting everyone know who is menstruating (and hence not pregnant) and who is not (and hence pregnant)
23Sex and the double standard In most human societies there is a double standard for male and female sexualityMales are typically given much more freedom than females
24Families and childrenFamilies in hunting and gathering societies are small (2or 3 surviving children)In part because of breast feeding and consequent cessation of ovulationIn horticultural and agrarian societies families are larger (7 to 8 surviving children)
25Modernization and change in marriage patterns Early twentieth century saw increasing numbers of women in the workforceAfter World War II, the percentage of women working outside of the home rapidly increased.The feminist revolution of the 1960s helped change rules that stopped women working
29In part because of these trends, people are now more likely to delay marriage
30Why do people marry? One reason is because people fall in love. Being in love is a biochemical state characterized by higher levels of dopamine and norepinephrine in blood.
31Contemporary marriage Despite love marriages, many similarities between modern marriages and marriages in pre-industrial societiesPeople of similar class and status backgrounds tend to marry each other
32Women are still more likely to pick mates who offer resources and status Men are still more likely to pick young and attractive mates.Men still prefer younger women, women still prefer older men
33The contemporary family Within the family, sex roles have become more egalitarianBut…men still disproportionately major providers and spend more time workingWomen still tend to do more of the housework and childcare
34Mothers are still more committed to children than fathers, on average. Most likely to get custody of children after divorce.
35In industrial societies such as the U. S In industrial societies such as the U.S., children are a major investmentCosts approximately $250,000 to raise a child to the age of 18
36Children have a stabilizing effect on marriages Marriage of parents encourages joint investment in childrenDivorce disrupts this joint investment
37Children of divorced parents receive less education and have lower occupational achievement than children raised by their biological parents.
38Nonbiological families Increasing numbers of nonbiological families – adoptive and otherAdopting families tend to be high income and high statusAdopted children receive about the same amount of investment as biological children
39Stepchildren do not receive as much investment as biological or adopted children
40Rise of fertility industry Delayed marriage and childbearing has meant increased incidence of fertility problems, mostly for womenRise in use of assisted reproduction technologiesProblems – multiple births, health problems
41Also increases in numbers of frozen embryos that couples do not know what to do with! They don’t want to throw them away
42Violence in the familyWhile family life is a happy experience for most, it can also be a place of conflict and even homicideMuch violence by males against their partners is fuelled by sexual jealousy and fear of losing a partner to another man.
43Women are most at risk of violence after they have just left a relationship
44Child abuse Most parents do not abuse their children Yet child abuse and infanticide occur.If the mother is involved in infanticide, it tends to be young mothers with little financial or social support.
45Chances of a biological parent killing a child are must smaller than the chances of a nonbiological guardian killing a childMost children live with their biological parents.Controlling for this, chances of a nonbiological caregiver harming a child are about 40 times that of a biological parent harming a child.