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Matrilineal Households. Family Structure Nuclear –2 generations –Neolocal or ambilocal –Mobility –Industrialized and foraging societies Extended (46%

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Presentation on theme: "Matrilineal Households. Family Structure Nuclear –2 generations –Neolocal or ambilocal –Mobility –Industrialized and foraging societies Extended (46%"— Presentation transcript:

1 Matrilineal Households

2 Family Structure Nuclear –2 generations –Neolocal or ambilocal –Mobility –Industrialized and foraging societies Extended (46% of societies) –3 generations –Patrilineal/patrilocal Elderly parents Unmarried daughters and sons Married sons with their wives and children –Joint = brothers with wives & children (2 generations) –Matrilineal Parents or eldest woman with her brothers & sisters Unmarried sons and daughters Married daughters with their children & husbands Nayar, Na/Mosuo (matrilineal household with no husbands ) Industrialization/urbanization  nuclear families Definitions of family broadening –80% American families non-traditional

3 Economics of Marriage Bridewealth (46%) Bride service (14%) Reciprocal exchange (6%) Dowry (3%)

4 Economics of Marriage Bridewealth (46%) –Groom’s to bride’s family –Africa, Asia, Middle East, Pacific –Positive aspects Security for wife Reduces divorce Compensation to bride’s lineage Symbol of union between kin groups Legitimation of marriage Transference of rights over children Redistribution –Negative aspect Woman may feel ‘owned’ by groom’s family –Monetization Lessens inter-group relations and solidarity Financial burden Marriages less stable

5 Economics of Marriage Bride service (14%) –Groom labors for bride’s parents –Few material goods, foragers –E.g. Ju/’hoansi Reciprocal exchange (6%) –Equal exchange –Pacific and Native Americans Dowry (3%) –Bride’s to groom’s family –Eurasia and India

6 Dowry in India Widely practiced Inheritance laws ignored Traditionally daughter’s inheritance –Portable items, gold –Controlled by woman –Security in husband’s family Changes with capitalist economy –British colonial rule (1858-1947) taxes and cash economy –Income for groom’s family –Recent decades (1980s-present) Liberalization  consumerism –Escalating demands Anti-dowry laws ignored – 95% practice Social pressure –Parents must get daughters married –To get good groom, secure position –Overcome girl’s “shortcomings ”

7 Dowry Effects on Girls & Women Daughters = economic liability Bias in favor of males –Inheritance –Underfeeding –Medical neglect –Suicide Hypergamy – marrying up Patrilineality, patrilocality Young & illiterate most vulnerable Dowry harassment and deaths –“Bride burning” –25,000 per year –Difficult to prosecute

8 Indian Sex Ratios Norm: 1,020 females/1,000 males India: 1901: 972/1000 2001: 933/1000 2011: 940/1000 = >37 million fewer females Ultrasound and abortion Infant mortality 40% higher for girls Child Sex Ratios (0-6 years) India: 2001: 927/1000, 2011: 914/1000 States 1991 2001 2011 Punjab 875 793 846 Haryana 879 820 830 Gujarat 928 878 886 Maharashtra 946 917 883 (Kerala 1084, female literacy 92%)

9 Divorce Bridewealth, dowry, patrilineal  low divorce rate –Economic investment –Dependence –Children stay with father’s family Bilateral, matrilineal  higher divorce rate –Matrilocal or ambilocal –Ties with natal kin –Inheritance –Children may stay with mother, or choose –Less stigma for children out of wedlock Patrilineal –Concern over paternity  control women –Honor killings Family, lineage, caste honor

10 Divorce Descent systems (patrilineal, matrilineal, bilateral) –residence patterns –inheritance –support from natal family –whether corporate groups are involved –whether marriages are arranged –whether there is an economic exchange such as bridewealth or dowry –who the children belong to –whether there is social stigma and/or legal sanctions –economic dependence

11 Divorce rate in U.S. ~50% Divorce in India ~1% –Dowry –Involvement of families –Emphasis on family & caste instead of individual –Arranged vs. romantic love –Social stigma –Difficult to obtain –Repercussions for family members –Economic dependence of women –Can’t return to natal family Proverb: “A given girl is out of the family”

12 Patrilineal Societies Men inherit Women marry into another group, village Changes in women’s status over life course –Bearing sons –Becoming mother-in-law –Filial ties (parent-child) Uterine family –Mother-son relationship –e.g. Chinese, Sub-Sahara African Conflicts of interest between older & younger women

13 Matrilineal Societies Children belong to mother’s lineage Men still have crucial roles & leadership No matriarchies! Men owe position in lineage to women Status of women more important Women have more control over their lives Advantages for women –Matrilocal residence –Natal family support –More freedom –Control over property –Domestic authority –Higher value placed on lives

14 Kinship Terms Descent – related by blood –Patrilineal –Matrilineal –Bilateral –Ambilineal Residence – where couple lives –Patrilocal/Virilocal = with husband’s parents –Matrilocal/Uxorilocal = with bride’s parents –Avunculocal = with uncle –Bilocal/Ambilocal = with either set of parents –Neolocal = new/with neither set of parents Family Structure –Nuclear –Extended = 3 generations –Joint = brothers, 2 generations –Matrifocal = women and children

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