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Anatomy and Physiology

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1 Anatomy and Physiology
Articulations Anatomy and Physiology

2 I. Classification of joints
Articulation – point where 2 bones meet (joint) Joints are classified according to amount and type of movements 3 general types of joints Immovable (synarthrosis) Slightly immovable ( amphiarthrosis) Freely movable (diarthrosis)

3 II. Immovable joints (synarthrosis)
Joints fused together 4 types Sutures Gomphoses Synchondroses synostoses

4 a. Sutures Between bones of skulls Interlocked
Bound together by dense connective tissue

5 b. gomphoses teeth to bony sockets
held into socket by periodontal ligament

6 c. Synchondroses cartilage bridge between 2 articulating bones
ex. Ends of vertebrosternal rib and sternum

7 d. synostosis rigid immovable
bones fused together with no line of demarcation as to where it starts or ends. Ex. Hip, coccyx

8 III. Slightly movable (amphiarthrosis)
Permits more movement than syntarthrosis, but stronger than freely movable joints 2 types 1. syndesmosis 2. symphysis

9 a. Syndesmosis (sin-dez-MO-sis)
bones connected by a ligament ex. Tibia and fibula

10 b,. symphysis bones separated by wedge or pad of fibrocartilage
ex. Vertebrae – vertebral disks pubic bones – pubic symphysis

11 IV. Freely Movable (diarthroses)
a. Aka – synovial joints Allow large range of motion Synovial joint surrounded by capsule and synovial membrane lines the cavity Found end of long bones Surface slippery and smooth which decreases friction Contains synovial fluid


13 b. 3 functions of synovial fluid
i. lubricant the viscous fluid acts to lubricate the joints ii. nutrient distribution circulates to provide nutrients and rids waste products moves every time joint moves iii. shock absorption cushions distributes pressure across the joint which lessens shock on the surfaces of joint

14 c. arthritis affects syovial joints damages to articulating cartilages
caused by injury, virus, bacteria, physical stress 2 types arthritis i. Osteoarthritis – Degenerative Results from cumulative wear and tear of joint surfaces Genetic factors 60 + older ii. Rheumatoid arthritis Inflammation Due to immune system mistakenly attacking joint tissue Allergies, bacteria, virus, and genetics contribute to triggering


16 iii. Treatment of arthritis
Exercises Physical therapy Meds (anti-inflamatory) Replacement of joint

17 V. Accessory Structures of synovial joints
Fat pads Cartilage pads Ligaments Tendons bursea


19 a. Fat pads structure: adipose tissue covered by layer of synovial membrane superficial to joint capsule function – protect articulating cartilage act as packing material for joint by filling in spaces created as joint cavity moves.

20 b. Cartilage pads structure:
fibrocartilage pad situated between bones within synovial joint ex. Meniscus function : channel synovial fluid flow absorb shock subdivide synovial cavity

21 c. ligaments i. Accessory: thickenings of capsule
reinforces and strengthens capsule limits rotation at joint ii. extracapsular connect articulating bones passes across outside of capsule support wall of joint ex. Lateral collateral and medial collateral ligaments of knee iii. Intracapsular inside capsule prevents extreme movements that could hurt joint ex. ACL , PCL iv. other (ligaments of knee) popliteal patellar 

22 d. tendons Connect muscle to bone
Across and around joints to provide strength to joints Tendonitis – inflammation of tendon

23 e. bursea structure Small fluid filled sacs in connective tissue
Contain synovial fluid and lined by synovial membrane Found where tendons and ligaments rub against other tissues Function – Decrease friction Absorb shock Bursitis – inflammation of bursae Pain when move tendon or ligament Associated with repetitive motion Golfers, swimmers, pitchers, tennis

24 VI. Types of Movements Gliding Angular Rotation Special movements

25 a. gliding Sliding past one another Carpal bones B/t tarsal bones
b/t clavicle and sternum movement in any direction – but very slight Ex: touch process on clavicle and turn shoulders in – feel sliding

26 b. angular Change in angle between shaft and joint
Flexion – decrease in angle ex. Chin to chest, touch toes, bend wrist Extension – increase in angle Ex. Straightening leg or arm Hyperextension – extension beyond anatomical position ex. Look at ceiling (hyperextend neck)

27 ex. Moving arm away from body, spreading fingers
Abduction – movement of appendage AWAY from long axis of body (along frontal plane) ex. Moving arm away from body, spreading fingers Adduction – movement appendages TOWARD long axis of body (along frontal plane) Ex. Moving arm toward body, fingers together Circumduction – Distal end of appendage moves in circle Ex. Baseball wind up

28 c. Rotation in referent to anatomical position depends on part moving
ex. Head rotation – move chin to right or left (say NO) ex. Limb rotation – medial – inward lateral – outward   Lower arm rotation pronation – move palm toward back supinate – move palm from back toward front

29 d. Special movements FOOT: inversion
twisting motion of foot that turns sole inward eversion twisting motion of foot that turns sole outward dorsiflexion flexion of ankle and elevation of sole of foot (dig heel into ground) plantar flexion extend ankle and elevate heel (stand on tip toes)

30 Special mvmts. cont…. opposition thumb to fingers protraction
moving body part anteriorly in horizontal plane ex. Sticking out tongue retraction opposite of protraction elevation structure moves superiorly ex. Shrug shoulders, close mouth, depression structure move inferior open mouth lateral flexion vertebral column bends to one side ex. Side stiches, move ear toward shoulder

31 VII. Types of Synovial Joints
Each synovial joint permits different type and range of motion Gliding Hinge Pivot Ellipsoidal Saddle Ball and socket

32 a. Gliding Aka planar joints Flattened or slightly curved faces
Flat articulating surfaces Slight movement Ex. Clavicle, carpals, tarsals, between vertebrae

33 b. Hinge joint Angular movement in single plane (monaxial joint)
Monaxial joint (only flexes or extends in one plane) Ex. Occipital condyle and atlas Elbow, knee, interphalangeal joints , wrist

34 c. Pivot Monaxial Permits rotation only
Ex. Atlanto-axial joint (atlas and axis) Radioulnar joint

35 d. Ellipsoidal Aka condyloid joint Nestles with in a depression
Angular motion in 2 planes – biaxial (flexion/extension and abduction/adduction ex. Metacarpal phalangeal joint metatarsalphalangeal joint wrist – radiocarpal joint

36 e. Saddle Aka sellaris joint Articulating faces look like saddles
Angular motion – biaxial Circumduction and angular motion (flexion /extension, etc) Ex. Carpometacarpal joint (base of thumb – twiddle thumbs)

37 f. Ball and socket round head of bone fits in cup shaped depression of another bone multiaxial – rotate, circumduction, angular movements) ex. Shoulder , hip

38 VIII. Major Joints in Human Body
Shoulder joint: greatest range of motion also most frequently dislocated most stability provided by ligaments and muscles around joint contain bursae to decrease friction between tissue

39 Shoulder joint cont… rotator cuff: supraspinatus infraspinatus
subscapularis teres minor primary support for shoulder joint and limits range of motion. Injury to rotator cuff usually due to severe stress on shoulder, repetition (pitchers, swimmers, quarterbacks , etc..)

40 b. elbow olecranon joint hinge (flexion and extension) diarthrosis
muscles that extend elbow attach at olecranon process (triceps) muscles that flex elbow – attach at radial tuberosity stable joint due to the fact that humerus and ulna interlock has thick articular capsule and ligament reinforcement

41 c. hip diarthrosis flexsion / extension, abduction/adduction, circumduction and rotation contains large muscles to help with stability of joint ligaments around the hip include iliofemoral pubofemoral ischiofemoral transverse acetabular ligament ligamentum teres

42 d. knee Hinge joint Flexion / extension (monaxial) Limited rotation
Medial and lateral menisci lie between femoral and tibial surface Cushions, gives lateral stability,

43 Knee cont. Ligaments of knee Patellar ligament
Patella is within patellar tendon, continuation of this tendon = patellar ligament which attaches to anterior surface of tibia (tuberosity) Popliteal ligaments (2) Between femur and heads of tibia and fibula Supports posterior surface Anterior and Posterior Cruciate Inside joint capsule Criss cross inside capsule Limit anterior and posterior movement of femur and maintain alignment of femoral and tiaeal condyles. Tibial (medial ) collateral (MCL) Reinforces medial surface of knee Fubular (lateral) collateral (LCL) Reinforces lateral surface of knee

44 IX. Male vs. Female Skeleton
General differences: Males bones larger than female Males have larger muscle attachment surfaces Males have larger Joint surfaces Skull : Males have shorter forehead Males mandible and maxillae larger Males facial area is more pronounced Pelvis: Males pelvis narrower Males pelvis deeper Males pelvic outlet smaller Males subpubic angle less than 90 degrees



47 X. Common Disorders of Skeletal System
1. Arthritis – inflammation of joint, pain stiffness Osteoarthritis – wear and tear Rheumatoid - 2. Bunion Bony bump that forms on the joint at the base of your great toe. Wearing tight or narrow shoes can form bunions. Sometimes just inherent structural defect. 3. Bursitis Inflammation of fluid filled sac Overuse or repetitive movement 4. Gout Missing enzyme causes uric acid build up in joints Common in toe, knee 5. Herniated disc When vertebral disk “pops” out from between vertebrae

48 Disorders cont….. 6. Luxation 7. Subluxation 8. Sprain 9. Strain
Full dislocation of a joint Usually from fall or unusual movement Shoulder, knees, shoulder, fingers, jaw 7. Subluxation Partial dislocation of a joint 8. Sprain Overstretching or tearing of connective tissue, ligaments and tendons 9. Strain Overstretching or over use of muscle


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