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Joints Part 2: Support & Movement. Joints Joints or Articulations: Locations were bones join together that allow for some degree of movement. Arthrology:

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Presentation on theme: "Joints Part 2: Support & Movement. Joints Joints or Articulations: Locations were bones join together that allow for some degree of movement. Arthrology:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Joints Part 2: Support & Movement

2 Joints Joints or Articulations: Locations were bones join together that allow for some degree of movement. Arthrology: The scientific study of Joints! Most important joints for this test: Knee and Shoulder Classification: Either by structure or range of movement allowed.

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4 Structural Classifications Synovial Joints: The most important type; found throughout the body and named for their synovial cavity that is lubricated by the synovial fluid.  Freely movable joints  Bones joined together by dense irregular connective tissue within the fibrous joint capsule  Primary examples: Elbow, knee, hip, ankle

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6 Structural Classifications Fibrous Joints: Joints where the bones are held together via collagenous fibers running from the matrix of one bone to the matrix of the other bone.  NO joint cavity; little to no movement

7 Structural Classifications Types of Fibrous Joints:  Sutures: Found only in the bones of the skull Irregular edges provide added strength against fractures. Synostosis or Bony Joint: When a suture is replaced by bone.  Syndesmosis: More fibrous tissue than a suture, but permits a very small degree of movement Examples: Distal tibiofibular joint  Gomphoses: A cone-shaped peg fitting into a socket. ONLY found where teeth attach.

8 Sutures Syndesmosis Gomphoses

9 Structural Classification Cartilaginous Joints: Bones are held together by hyaline or fibro cartilage.  DO NOT contain a joint cavity.  Allow little to no movement.

10 Structural Classification Types of Cartilaginous Joints:  Synchondroses: Made of hyaline cartilage. Found in epiphyseal plates connecting the epiphysis and diaphysis of growing bone Found where the rib attaches to the sternum  Symphyses: A flat disk of fibrocartilage connects the bones Found in the public symphysis or the intervertebral joints Slightly moveable

11 Synchondroses Symphyses

12 Functional Classification Diarthroses: Freely moveable synovial joints  Ex. Shoulder, hip, finger, knee Amphiarthrosis: Slightly moveable joints  Ex. Symphysis pubis and intervertebral discs Synarthroses: Immovable joints  Ex. Sutures, epiphyseal plates of long bones

13 Diarthroses Amphiarthrosis Synarthroses

14 Synovial Joints Bones covered by articular cartilage, which reduces friction between bones & absorbs shock Articular Capsule: Surrounds each synovial joints, composed of…  Fibrous Capsule: An outer layer  Synovial Membrane: Inner layer; secretes synovial fluid Synovial Fluid: Reduces friction, supplies nutrients, contains phagocytes to help remove debris from the joint  Meniscus: Cushy pad contained by some joints to further absorb shock

15 Synovial Joints Ligaments: Tough connective tissue bands arranged in capsule bundles.  Run from bone to bone across the joint.  Helps stabilize and strengthen the joint Bursae: Fluid-filled sacs beneath the muscles  Help tendons glide easily over joints  Bursitis: Inflammation of the bursae from overexertion of a joint Tendon Sheaths: Thin membrane enclosing the tendon.  Help reduce friction at joints.

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17 Types of Synovial Joints Ball-And-Socket Joints:  Highly moveable  Multiaxial  Examples: Shoulder & hip joints

18 Types of Synovial Joints Planar Joints: “Gliding Joints”  Permit some side-to-side & back-and-forth movement  Nonaxial  Examples: Joints between carpal & tarsal bones & between the scapula and clavicle

19 Types of Synovial Joints Pivot Joints: Where a projection on one bone fits into a ring shaped ligament on the other bone.  Uniaxial (allows for rotationa round one axis only)  Examples: Atlanto-axial joint (allows side-to-side head shakes) & where the radius articulates to the ulna.

20 Types of Synovial Joints Hinge Joints: Act like a hinge on a door  Allow for uniaxial or monoaxial swinging motion  Examples: Knee, elbow, ankle, finger, toe joints

21 Types of Synovial Joints Condyloid Joints: Occur where an oval convex surface fits into a similar shaped concave depress on the next bone.  Biaxial  Examples: Metacarpophalangeal joints of the wrist.

22 Types of Synovial Joints Saddle Joint: Named for its shape  Biaxial  Only ONE: Where the thumb metacarpal articulates with the trapezium of the wrist Allows for the opposable thumb

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24 Joint Movement Flexion: Movement that decreases the angle of the bone in a joint  Example: Bending your arm at the elbow toward you  Flexing the knee to limb stairs

25 Joint Movement Extension: Movement that increases the angle of a joint or straightens the joint, returning it to its anatomical position.  Example: Straightening your arm back out.

26 Joint Movement Hyperextension: Extension of a joint beyond 180 degrees  Example: Tilting your head back to look up at the ceiling

27 Joint Movement Abduction: Movement of a body part away from the midline  Example: Raising the humerus (upper extremity) laterally at the shoulder

28 Joint Movement Adduction: Movement of a body part toward the midline  Example: Pulling your thighs together or moving the humerus back to the anatomical position

29 Joint Movement Circumduction: Movement in which one end (usually the proximal end) of an appendage stays relatively stationary while the other end (usually distal) makes a circular motion  Example: Making a windmill motion with the arm

30 Joint Movement Rotation: Movement in which a bone revolves around its longitudinal axis  Example: Twisting at the waist or turning your head from side to side

31 Joint Movement Depression: Movement that lowers a bone vertically  Example: Opening the mouth Elevation: Movement that raises a bone vertically  Example: Closing the mouth

32 Joint Movement Protraction: Movement of a bone anteriorly  Example: Jutting your chin out Retraction: Movement of a bone posteriorly  Example: Pulling your chin back in after jutting it out

33 Joint Movement Supination: Rotating the arm palm upward. Pronation: Rotating the hand palm downward

34 Joint Movement Inversion: When the soles of the feet turn medially to face each other. Eversion: Turns the soles of the feet laterally to face away from each other.

35 Joint Movement Dorsiflexion: The act of pointing the toes upward. Plantar Flexation: Pointing the toes downward.

36 Joint Movement Opposition: When the thumb reaches across the palm to touch the fingers  Useful for grasping & manipulating objects

37 Joint Movement A great webside that goes through all the types of joint movement for each major joint… o.uk/musrom.htm o.uk/musrom.htm


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