Presentation on theme: "Part 2: Support & Movement"— Presentation transcript:
1Part 2: Support & Movement JointsPart 2: Support & Movement
2JointsJoints or Articulations: Locations were bones join together that allow for some degree of movement.Arthrology: The scientific study of Joints!Most important joints for this test: Knee and ShoulderClassification: Either by structure or range of movement allowed.
4Structural Classifications Synovial Joints: The most important type; found throughout the body and named for their synovial cavity that is lubricated by the synovial fluid.Freely movable jointsBones joined together by dense irregular connective tissue within the fibrous joint capsulePrimary examples: Elbow, knee, hip, ankle
6Structural Classifications Fibrous Joints: Joints where the bones are held together via collagenous fibers running from the matrix of one bone to the matrix of the other bone.NO joint cavity; little to no movement
7Structural Classifications Types of Fibrous Joints:Sutures: Found only in the bones of the skullIrregular edges provide added strength against fractures.Synostosis or Bony Joint: When a suture is replaced by bone.Syndesmosis: More fibrous tissue than a suture, but permits a very small degree of movementExamples: Distal tibiofibular jointGomphoses: A cone-shaped peg fitting into a socket.ONLY found where teeth attach.
9Structural Classification Cartilaginous Joints: Bones are held together by hyaline or fibro cartilage.DO NOT contain a joint cavity.Allow little to no movement.
10Structural Classification Types of Cartilaginous Joints:Synchondroses: Made of hyaline cartilage.Found in epiphyseal plates connecting the epiphysis and diaphysis of growing boneFound where the rib attaches to the sternumSymphyses: A flat disk of fibrocartilage connects the bonesFound in the public symphysis or the intervertebral jointsSlightly moveable
14Synovial JointsBones covered by articular cartilage, which reduces friction between bones & absorbs shockArticular Capsule: Surrounds each synovial joints, composed of…Fibrous Capsule: An outer layerSynovial Membrane: Inner layer; secretes synovial fluidSynovial Fluid: Reduces friction, supplies nutrients, contains phagocytes to help remove debris from the jointMeniscus: Cushy pad contained by some joints to further absorb shock
15Synovial JointsLigaments: Tough connective tissue bands arranged in capsule bundles.Run from bone to bone across the joint.Helps stabilize and strengthen the jointBursae: Fluid-filled sacs beneath the musclesHelp tendons glide easily over jointsBursitis: Inflammation of the bursae from overexertion of a jointTendon Sheaths: Thin membrane enclosing the tendon.Help reduce friction at joints.
17Types of Synovial Joints Ball-And-Socket Joints:Highly moveableMultiaxialExamples: Shoulder & hip joints
18Types of Synovial Joints Planar Joints: “Gliding Joints”Permit some side-to-side & back-and-forth movementNonaxialExamples: Joints between carpal & tarsal bones & between the scapula and clavicle
19Types of Synovial Joints Pivot Joints: Where a projection on one bone fits into a ring shaped ligament on the other bone.Uniaxial (allows for rotationa round one axis only)Examples: Atlanto-axial joint (allows side-to-side head shakes) & where the radius articulates to the ulna.
20Types of Synovial Joints Hinge Joints: Act like a hinge on a doorAllow for uniaxial or monoaxial swinging motionExamples: Knee, elbow, ankle, finger, toe joints
21Types of Synovial Joints Condyloid Joints: Occur where an oval convex surface fits into a similar shaped concave depress on the next bone.BiaxialExamples: Metacarpophalangeal joints of the wrist.
22Types of Synovial Joints Saddle Joint: Named for its shapeBiaxialOnly ONE: Where the thumb metacarpal articulates with the trapezium of the wristAllows for the opposable thumb
24Joint MovementFlexion: Movement that decreases the angle of the bone in a jointExample: Bending your arm at the elbow toward youFlexing the knee to limb stairs
25Joint MovementExtension: Movement that increases the angle of a joint or straightens the joint, returning it to its anatomical position.Example: Straightening your arm back out.
26Joint Movement Hyperextension: Extension of a joint beyond 180 degrees Example: Tilting your head back to look up at the ceiling
27Joint MovementAbduction: Movement of a body part away from the midlineExample: Raising the humerus (upper extremity) laterally at the shoulder
28Joint Movement Adduction: Movement of a body part toward the midline Example: Pulling your thighs together or moving the humerus back to the anatomical position
29Joint MovementCircumduction: Movement in which one end (usually the proximal end) of an appendage stays relatively stationary while the other end (usually distal) makes a circular motionExample: Making a windmill motion with the arm
30Joint MovementRotation: Movement in which a bone revolves around its longitudinal axisExample: Twisting at the waist or turning your head from side to side
31Joint Movement Depression: Movement that lowers a bone vertically Example: Opening the mouthElevation: Movement that raises a bone verticallyExample: Closing the mouth
32Joint Movement Protraction: Movement of a bone anteriorly Example: Jutting your chin outRetraction: Movement of a bone posteriorlyExample: Pulling your chin back in after jutting it out
33Joint Movement Supination: Rotating the arm palm upward. Pronation: Rotating the hand palm downward
34Joint MovementInversion: When the soles of the feet turn medially to face each other.Eversion: Turns the soles of the feet laterally to face away from each other.
35Joint Movement Dorsiflexion: The act of pointing the toes upward. Plantar Flexation: Pointing the toes downward.
36Joint MovementOpposition: When the thumb reaches across the palm to touch the fingersUseful for grasping & manipulating objects
37Joint MovementA great webside that goes through all the types of joint movement for each major joint…