Presentation on theme: "Scandinavian Kings Middle Ages includeds: Art of the Warrior Lords Hiberno-Saxon Art Carolingian Art Ottonian Art."— Presentation transcript:
Scandinavian Kings Middle Ages includeds: Art of the Warrior Lords Hiberno-Saxon Art Carolingian Art Ottonian Art
Scandinavian Kings Art of the Warrior Lords Tribes from Asia and E. Cent Europe settle mix and keep pushing each other west Frequent Warring Mixing of Aesthetics Visigogths, Ostrogoths, Vandals, Lombards, Franks, Anglo-Saxons, and Celts Small art, ornamental, migratory, easily transportable
Scandinavian Kings Hiberno-Saxon Art Brittain and Ireland from Hiberno= Ireland Saxon= England Aesthetically similar to Warrior Lords art Differs in use of Christian Symbolism 432 St. Patrick- missionary from Rome Established Church in Ireland Spread Christianity through isles
Scandinavian Kings Carolingian Art 800 Charlemagne- King of Franks Revival of glory of Roman Empire in the time of Constantine Art was the vehicle for the revival Carolingian= Carolus Magnus- Latin form of his name Books, manuscripts, sculpture, architecture, mosaic, etc. Schools,
Scandinavian Kings Ottonian Art Chaotic time for Western Europe Vikings raided the north Franks, Saxons, and Lombard vied for control Church was disorganized and corrupt Order was restored within a line of Saxon Kings known as the Ottonians, Admired Charlemagne and each Otto dreamed of New Christian Empire.
8-1 Pectoral w/scenes from Scythian Life (Greek Craft done for Scythians 4th cent
16-1 Frankish Ornaments, 6h and 7th cent. Looped fibula, with silver filagree, b. round fibula, with cloisonne and stone inlay.
16-2 Purse cover from Sutton Hoo Ship Burial, Suffolk England
8-4 Prow of the Oseburg ship 9th cent Oslo.
8-4 Prow of the Oseburg ship 6th cent Oslo.
16-3 Animal-head pose from Oseberg burial ship, wood
16-4 Wood carved ornament (porch of stave church, Urnes Norway 11th cent.
8-7 Tara Brooch, Ireland, 8th cent Bronze W/ overlay of gold filigree and glass and Amber settings.
16-6 Ornamental Page from the Book of Lindesfarne, from Northumberland, England, 7th cent St. Matthew, from the book of Lindesfarne, Northumberland, England 7th cent.
8-9 The scribe Ezra, Rewriting the Sacred Records, Codex of Amiatinus, Jarrow, 8th cent.
16-8 Cats and Mice with Host, detail of figure Rho Iota page, Book of Matthew, Chapter I Verse 18 from the Book of Kells, probably from Iona, Scotland. Late 8th cent. Oxgall inks on vellum
Lavish illumination of letters, one of the best examples Symbolizes resurrection & incarnation The animals represent the incarnation, while the angels represent the resurrection Extremely symbolic and visual, the decorations go even further than just letters & images Carpet page: a page only for decoration Book of Kells = greatest achievement in Hiberno- Saxon art Named after monastery in southern Ireland that owned it This page opens account of Jesus in Gospels of Saint Matthew Initial letters of Christ in Greek (XPI – chi-rho-iota), nearly all page Two words – autem abbreviated as h and generation lower right Means: “Now this is how the birth of Christ came about” Extraordinarily intricate abstract design But not entirely abstract: a lot of human and animal forms
8-10 St. Matthew, from the book of Lindesfarne, Northumberland, England 7th cent.
16-9 High Cross of Muiredach Monasterboice, County Louth, Ireland 923
Spanish Monk, Beatus- Abbot of San Martin at Liebana, wrote the commentary on the Apocalypse It was widely copied-this is one of the copies Composite of interior and exterior views of of a medieval scriptorium Note the Islamic style glaze tiles Interior ladders, elegant windows with horseshoe arches Image denotes the Scribe Senior and the Painter Emeterius One monk uses shears to cut parchment
16-12 St. Matthew, from the Coronation book of Charlemagne,
16-13 St. Matthew, fromEbbo Gospels, Gospel Book of Archbishopp Ebbo of Reims, Hautvilliers (near Reims) France
16-14 Psalm 150, from the Utrecht Psalter, from Hautvilliers France, 830
Christ in Majesty, 4 Evangelists, and Scenes from the Life of Christ, Cover of the Codex Aureu of St. Emmeram 870
Master Wolvinus, detail of the Paliotto (golden altar) Sant Ambrogio, Milan 9th cent
Charlemagne impassioned by learning: high value placed on books, on scholarships Enormous resources into book making Like piece of jewellery Conflict between new Christian ways of representation with Classical ways of representation (ex.: stiff Christ, little figures moving & twisting) Gold and gems not only glorified Word of God but also evoked the heavenly Jerusalem One of most luxurious Youthful Christ in early Christian tradition Opened-eye figure in repoussé Reminds the beardless unsuffering Christ Four angels personification of moon and sun above Bottom: crouching Saint John and Virgin Mary with 2 uninditified In contrast, these display vivacity and nervous energy of Utrech Psalter figures This only shows diversity of early medieval art in Europe But here, translated style of Mediterranean prevails: Frankish “emperors of Rome”
Mounted Warrior with Captive from a gold vessel from the Nagy-szent- miklos treasure hoard, at Sinicolaul, Romania 9th cent.
8-18 Iron age house on foundations excavated at Ezinge, Holland
8-20 Interior of the Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne Build in Aachen, where Charles had his court Reminds of San Vitale: octagonale plan, outer/inner areas But more symmetrical Analogy to Justinian,who was the last great Roman emperor, very just Charles seem to say he is in line with Roman emperors, but also that HE is the emperor now In the Byzantine church, there was a mystical of the light, complex design and dark VS. light everywhere The Palatine Church is clearly organized, suggests clear powerful classical tradition not mystical, compartamised, has arches Porphyry (purple marble) columns imported from Ravenna Simpler plan Foreshadows Romanesque art by expressing robust strength and clear structural articulation Also, exterior with 2 cylindrical towers Royal chapel His son crowned there when he succeeded his father
16-17 Interior of the Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne Build in Aachen, where Charles had his court Reminds of San Vitale: octagonale plan, outer/inner areas But more symmetrical Analogy to Justinian, who was the last great Roman emperor, very just Charles seem to say he is in line with Roman emperors, but also that HE is the emperor now In the Byzantine church, there was a mystical of the light, complex design and dark VS. light everywhere The Palatine Church is clearly organized, suggests clear powerful classical tradition not mystical, compartamised, has arches Porphyry (purple marble) columns imported from Ravenna Simpler plan Foreshadows Romanesque art by expressing robust strength and clear structural articulation Also, exterior with 2 cylindrical towers Royal chapel His son crowned there when he succeeded his father
16-16 Restored plan of the Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne
16-18 Torhale Gatehouse, Lorsch West Germany 800
8-22 Monastery, St. Gall Switzerland 819
8-23 Monastery church of St. Requier, Centula France 800
16-22 Abby Church of St. Michael, Hildesheim, West Germany
16-23 Abby Church of St. Michael, Hildesheim, West Germany
8-26 Abby Church of St. Michael, Hildesheim, West Germany
Doors of Bishop Bernward, Abby Church of St. Michael, Hildesheim, Germany, 1015, Bronze
8-27 Adam and Eve Reproached by the Lord, from bronze doors commissioned by Bishop Bernward For St. Michael’s 1015
16 feet high 8 panels on each side (each side = 1 door) Left = old testament, right = new testament Old testament stories lead to events of the new Each door casted in 1 cast of bronze Incredible engineering metal craft Read from top down (left) and bottom up (right) Way organized interesting: each OT scene connected to NT scene, OT/NT Concordance Ex.: panel depicting Fall of Adam & Eve next to panel of Crucifixion; panel Eve nursing infant Cain next to Mary with Christ Child in her lap Probably inspired by Santa Sabina On church of Saint Michael’s, in Germany Can be compared to book covers, although more public. But still, only Monks could pass through them. (From cloister to church) Composition of many scenes on the door derive from Carolingian manuscript illuminations Expressive strength that brings to mind illustration of Utrecht Psalter
8-28 Doubting Thomas c.1000 Ivory, Staatliche Museen, Berlin
16-28 The Annunciation to the Shepherds, from the Lectionary of Henry II
16-29 Otto III Enthroned, Receiving the Homage of Four Parts of the Empire (nobility and clergy) from the Gospel Book of Otto III
6 feet tall Commissioned by Gero Not titled after artist, but after commissioner Artist more like a craftsman in Middle Ages Hold in the back of head for the host Host: what they eat during service, “body of the Christ” Heavy weight, swollen belly, flesh Striking image of suffering death Sorrow & grief Art more expressive & supposed to move you emotionally rather then intellectually, compared to Carolingian Nothing to do with imperial power, rather to teach, help believer realise the event & understand it’s importance Best example of the revival of interest in monumental sculpture Carved in oak, then painted and gilded Now more akin to representations of Byzantine suffering Christ But emotional power of the Ottonian representation greater still All-too-human martyr Blood on his forehead from crown of thorn Eyelids closed, face in pain Body sags under it’s own weight Muscles stretch to the limit Halo foretells possible Resurrection, but all we see is pain Most powerful characterization of intense agony of early Middle Ages
1. What factors do the authors believe inclined the Germanic tribes to adopt the animal style? What was the origin? 2. Compare the abstract decorative art of Early Medieval Europe as seen inthe ornamental page from the Book of Lindesfarne, with the Islamic decorative style as seen in the Ardebil Carpet (7-4) 3. Discuss the importance of Charlemagnes role in the history of art. 4. In what ways can St. Gall and the church of St. Michael’s at Hildesheim be related to Germanic sense of design as manifested in Frankish ornaments (fig 8-2), and the Medieval was of thinking? What importance do these buildings have for the development of Romanesque architecture in northern Europe? 5. Discuss the historical and political factors represented by the image of the Enthroned Otto III from his gospel book (fig 8-30). In what ways isthis image Related to the changing political and religious situation in Western Europe?
1. What factors do the authors believe inclined the Germanic tribes to adopt the animal style? What was the origin? 2. Discuss the importance of Charlemagnes role in the history of art.