3KEY CONCEPTS for the EARLY MEDIEVAL PERIOD DEVELOPMENT OF BOOKS The transition from the scroll to the bound book in this period was critical in the preservation and transmission of learning in Europe. Illuminated manuscripts are among the most important art objects created during the Early Middle Ages. Understand the process of bookmaking, copying, and illustrating that was developed during this period.CHARLEMAGNE'S PROJECT Charlemagne's attempt to revive the arts and create a culture along the lines of ancient Rome is the historical background for the most important period of art in the Early Middle Ages. His accomplishments and their influence, especially Carolingian miniscule and monastery design, are key conceptsINTERLACE Ribbon interlace and animal interlace were used as decoration on a variety of art objects from Sweden, Norway, and the British Isles. Themes of animal interlace to the presumed religious beliefs of the people that developed it.
4Three Basic parts to Early Medieval Era: Fall of Western Empire (5th Century): Anglo-Saxons (Warrior Lords) Migration PeriodWestern Empire now broken up amongst the Goths, Angles, Saxons and Franks… Known for the ‘animal style’ that is prevalent in this period… Chi Rho Iota from the Book of KellsOTTONIAN Periods ( ): The Three German Ottos known for uniting the region under a common Christian Rule again.
5As the Roman empire crumbled, political power passed to bishops and secular lords. The church, as the repository of tradition and learning, provided intellectual as well as spiritual leadership.
6The Anglo Saxons (warrior lords) Very few surviving work to tell us about the people of the time.Sm. Portable “status symbol” objectsTradition of Kings/ Queens buried with rich belongingsBeowulf (8th -11th Century)
7Purse cover, from the Sutton Hoo ship burial (Suffolk, England), c Purse cover, from the Sutton Hoo ship burial (Suffolk, England), c. 625, gold, glass, and enamel cloisonné with garnets and emeralds
9Two views of the Oseberg ship (Oslo) discovered beneath burial mound bodies and precious objects (many stolen)
10Animal head post, from the Oseberg ship burial (Norway), c Animal head post, from the Oseberg ship burial (Norway), c. 825, wood Vikings/ fusion of interlaced pattern and the animal form/ gruesome rituals of human sacrifice/mastery wood carving/ fusion of warrior lord expression with animal forms and interlace pattern
11Hiberno- Saxon (Celts) & Illuminated Manuscripts Christianization of the Celts in 5th centuryIrish monastic establishments created.Produces many illuminated manuscriptsPrimary vehicles in effort to ChristianizeSpread word of God to illiterate populationBooks seen as treasuresHandmade/ monks/ copied/ before printing press
12Cross and carpet page from the Lindisfarne Gospels (Northumbria, England), c , tempera on vellum early Medieval manuscript The Cross/ symmetry/ zoomorphic forms intermingling lines
13use of serpents, dragons, and other fantastic animals
14Carpet Page, Lindisfarne Gospels, ca 698-721. HIBERNO-SAXON ART
15Varied styles within the Book of Lindisfarne/ St Varied styles within the Book of Lindisfarne/ St. Matthew (apostle)/ sacred act of copying images/ flat line and color- no volume/ winged man symbol
16Chi-rho-iota page from the Book of Kells (Iona, Scotland), late eighth or early ninth century use of abbreviations Initial letters of Christ in Greek/ chi-(x) rho (p) iota (I)/ curves and ripples Biblical text into abstract pattern
18High Cross of Muiredach (Monasterboice, County Louth, Ireland), Celtic Cross (circle & cross) large mass and scale/ love of pattern/ wheel and the circle/ transom/ crucified and Christ risen on each side/ souls weighed on scales
20CAROLINGIAN Period (768-814): Charlemagne crowned King of the Franks in 768 and Roman Emperor (r )Charlemagne came to be seen as the first Holy (that is, Christian) Roman Emperor.Cathedral of Aachen promoted the ‘three-part elevation’ to Churches…Education to the people through art and illuminated manuscripts, like the Ebbo Gospels
21Why do we call itCarolingian Art?Equestrian portrait of Charlemagne (Metz, Germany), early ninth centuryCoronated at Saint Peter’s basilica in Rome, built by Constantine, the first Roman emperor to embrace Christianity.He gave his name (Carolus Magnus in Latin) to an entire era, the Carolingian period.
22Carolingian ArtThe Franks had settled in northern Gaul (modern France) by the end of the 5th century. In 732, the Franks turned back the Muslim invasion of Gaul and established a dynasty of rulers called the Carolingians…the greatest being Charles the Great (Charlemagne).
23Equestrian/ parading, not in action/ imperial rob/ glove –symbol of world domination/ Revive Roman Empire
24Saint Matthew folio from the Coronation Gospel Book of Charlemagne (Aachen, Germany), c , ink and tempera on vellum Charlemagne/ Aachen/ reliance on classical prototypes for artistic inspiration/
25Saint Matthew from the Ebbo Gospels (Hautvillers, near Reims, France), c , ink and tempera on vellum classical calm replaced by a frenzy of energy classical illusionism merged with linear northern linear tradition
28Saint Luke from the Ebbo Gospels (Hautvillers, near Reims, France), c Saint Luke from the Ebbo Gospels (Hautvillers, near Reims, France), c , ink and tempera on vellum
29Carolingian Art The golden cover of the Lindau Gospels. Crucifixion, front cover of the Lindau Gospels,ca. 870Carolingian ArtThe golden cover of the Lindau Gospels.pearls and jewels that are raised on golden claw feet so that they can catch and reflect the light.The figures are rendered in repoussé, or hammered or pressed relief.The youthful Christ brings to mind the beardless unsuffering Christ of the fifth-century ivory casket from Italy.This single eclectic work displays the classical and native stylistic poles of Carolingian art side by side.
30Left: front cover of the Lindau Gospels, c. 870, gold Below: back cover
31Cover of the Psalter of Charles the Bald (St. Denis, France), c Cover of the Psalter of Charles the Bald (St. Denis, France), c. 865, ivory panel set in silver-gilt with filigree work and precious stones rich, decorated surfaces/ continued intellectual and artistic endeavors during the Carolingian period
33Monday Finish Early Medieval Go over Unit 4 Exam Turn in Medieval WKST for Late Grade.Tomorrow: Unit 4 TestMust have an excused absence to miss test. Parent / call. Otherwise it’s all Essay Test.
34Odo of Metz. Interior of the Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne (Aachen, Germany), modeled after San Vitale (Ravenna)/ clear structural articulation/ eastern feel: octogan shape/ striped arches/ basilica-central plan Important Relics: cloak of Virgin Mary, Loin cloth of Christ on cross
38Abbey church of Corvey (Westphalia), Germany, c Abbey church of Corvey (Westphalia), Germany, c only Carolingian westwork to survive westwork: “façade with towers” castle or fortress like stairs in tower provided access to upper stories 2nd floor-2 story chapel w/ aisle and gallery on 3 sides
39Turn in medieval worksheets for late grade THURSDAYTurn in medieval worksheets for late gradeFinish Early Medieval: The OttoniansSister Wendy: Art History VideoTomorrow: REVIEWMONDAY: UNIT 4 EXAM!!!!!Will put up review images online tonight
40Ottonians30 yrs after Charlemegne’s death, the empire was divided by his three grand childrenMid 10th century- newline of emperors- Ottonians consolidated eastern part of Charlemagnes former empire.Sought to preserve & enrich the culture and tradition of Carolingian period
49Crucifix commissioned by Archbishop Gero for Cologne Cathedral, c Crucifix commissioned by Archbishop Gero for Cologne Cathedral, c. 970, painted wood Archbishop Gero/ suffering on a monumental scale/ INRI (Iesus Nazarenus Rex Iudaeorum)
50Ottonian ArtCrucifixion, commissioned by Archbishop Geroca. 970This Crucifix, carved in oak and then painted and gilded, epitomizes the revival of interest in monumental sculpture during this period. The six-foot-tall image of Christ nailed to the cross is both statue and reliquary [a shrine for sacred relics].
51Annunciation to the Shepherds, from the Lectionary of Henry II (Reichenau, Germany), clarity and confidence expressed by line quality
56Washing of Peter’s feet, from the Gospel Book of Otto III, c. 1000
57Page of Christ Washing the Feet of His Disciples Gospels of Otto III, c. 1000This manuscript painting, done about 1000 CE, is a scene of humility, but during the next 200 years, the Romanesque period, the emperors, kings, popes and abbots lavish their material resources on churches to glorify God and recreate an image of the heavenly Jerusalem on earth.This manuscript painting, done about 1000 CE, is a scene of humility, but during the next 200 years, the Romanesque period, the emperors, kings, popes and abbots lavish their material resources on churches to glorify God and recreate an image of the heavenly Jerusalem on earth.