4 Ship BurialsThen Scyld departed at the destined hour, that powerful man sought the Lord's protection. His own close companions carried him down to the sea, as he, Lord of the Danes, had asked while he could still speak.That well-loved man had ruled his land for many years. There in the harbour stood the ring-prowed ship, the prince's vessel, shrouded in ice and eager to sail; and then they laid their dear lord, the giver of rings, deep within the ship by the mast in majesty; many treasures and adornments from far and wide were gathered there.I have never heard of a ship equipped more handsomely with weapons and war-gear, swords, and corselets, on his breast lay countless treasures that were to travel far with him into waves' domain.They gave him great ornaments, gifts no less magnificent than those men had given him long before, when they sent him alone, child as he was, across the stretch of the seas.Then high above his head they placed a golden banner and let the waves bear him, bequeathed him to the sea, their hearts were grieving, their minds mourning. Mighty Men beneath the heavens, rulers in the hall, cannot say who received that cargo.Beowulf
5 16-1: Frankish looped fibula Sixth to 7th centuries CE; 10 cm long.Silver gilt worked in filigreeInlays of garnets and other stonesSimilar fibulae may be seen in the Emperor Justinian’s image from San Vitale (Gardner,12- 10) and other contemporary portraits.
6 16-2: Purse Cover from Sutton Hoo Purse cover from the Sutton Hoo ship burial in Suffolk, England.Gold, glass, and enamel cloisonné with garnets and emeralds. 18 cm long, British Museum, London.
8 16-4: Portal, Stave Church, Urnes, Norway Wood carved entry to the Stave Church at Urnes, Norway, cThese images drawn from nature represent the pinnacle of Viking art.Note the use of intertwined and animal forms.
9 16-5: St. Matthew from Book of Durrow Man (symbol of St. Matthew), folio 21 verso of the Book of Durrow, possibly from Iona Scotland, c CE.“Carpet” page, ink and tempera on parchment, Trinity College, Dublin.Note resemblance to cloisonné jewelry.
10 16.6: Cross and Carpet PageCross and carpet page, folio 26 verso of the Lindisfarne Gospels, from Northumbria, England, c CE.Tempera on vellum, British Library, London.Note resemblance to Persian and other ornamental carpets
11 The Book of KellsCross and carpet page from the Book of Kells, probably from Iona, Scotland, late 8th, early 9th century.The cross is the cross of the Patriarchs, a Byzantine design.
12 16-7: Chi-rho-iota page, Book of Kells Chi-rho-iota page folio 34 recto, Book of Kells, probably from Iona, Scotland, late 8th, early 9th century.Tempera on vellum, Trinity College, Dublin.Elaborate example of an illuminated capital.
13 16-8 Saint Matthew, Lindisfarne Gospels Image of St. Matthew, folio 25 verso Lindisfarne Gospels, from Northumbria, England, c CE.Tempera on vellum, British Library, London.Note resemblance to Byzantine icons; it was probably copied from an Italian manuscript.
14 Saint Mark, Lindisfarne Gospels Image of St. Mark, Lindisfarne Gospels, from Northumbria, England, c CE.Tempera on vellum, British Library, London.Note resemblance to Byzantine icons
15 16-9 The Scribe EzraThe Scribe Ezra, folio 5 recto of the Codex Amiatinus, from Jarrow, England, cTempera on vellum. Biblioteca Medicea- Laurenziana, Florence, Italy.
16 16-10 High Cross of Muiredach High Cross of Muiredach, Monasterboice, Louth, Ireland, 923 CE, about 5 metres high.
17 16-1: Charlemagne Equestrian portrait of Charlemagne (?). Early 9th century, Metz, Germany, bronze - originally gilded.Compare to the image of Marcus Aurelius (10-59).
18 CharlemagneOn Christmas Day, 800 CE, Pope Leo III crowned Charles the Great (Charlemagne) King of the Franks, emperor of Rome.He became known as the Holy Roman Emperor
19 16-12: St. MatthewSt. Matthew, folio 15 recto of the Coronation Gospels (Gospel Book of Charlemagne), c. 800.The style of this image is Byzantine or Italianate, not Frankish.
20 16-13: St. MatthewSt. Matthew, folio 18 verso of the Ebbo Gospels (Gospel Book of Archbishop Ebbo of Reims), c. 820.The style of this image is distinctly Frankish, much more impassioned and psychological.
23 16-15: Psalter of Charles the Bald, c 16-15: Psalter of Charles the Bald, c. 865 (left) 16-16: Lindau Gospels, c (right)
24 16-18 Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne Designed by Odo of Metz for Charlemagne.Built in Aix-la-chapelle (Aachen)Design reflects many elements of San Vitale in Ravenna, which Charlemagne often visited, but is simpler and more robust.
25 16-19 Torhalle, Lorsch, Germany Built in the 9th century.Gate to Lorsch Monastery.Style reflects both the triumphal arches and the city gates built by the Romans.
26 16-22: Abbey Church of St. Pantaleon Ottonian architectural style; built in Cologne, Germany.The twin tall steeples on the west wall are a Frankish innovation that would be later seen in Gothic churches.Note the interplay of various geometric shapes in the design.
27 16-23: Abbey Church of St. Michael’s Ottonian architectural style; built in Hildesheim, Germany.St Michael’s Hildesheim is a basilica-style design with two narrow transepts.Note the differing treatment of the east and west apses.
29 16-24: Abbey Church of St. Michael’s Nave of St Michael’s Hildesheim.This structure is taller in proportion to its width than traditional Roman basilicas.Note the alternating light and heavy wall supports.
30 16-25: Abbey Church of St. Michael’s Bronze doors of St Michael’s Hildesheim.Cast as a single panel using the lost wax technique (cire perdu).Detail: expulsion of Adam and Eve.
31 16-26: Abbey Church of St. Michael’s Bronze column with reliefs depicting the life of Christ, cNote the similarity to the spiral narrative of such Roman victory columns, as Trajan’s column in Rome.(right)
32 16-27: Crucifix, Cologne Cathedral Commissioned by Archbishop Gero for Cologne Cathedral, c. 970.Carved and painted wood (oak), approximately two metres tall.Similar to Byzantine images of Christ’s passion but more emotionally intense.
33 16-28: Annunciation to the Shepherds Lectionary of Henry II, Reichenau, Germany,Tempera on vellum.The imagery, similar to Byzantine icons, emphasises the power and majesty of God’s authority.Expresses strong emotional impact.
34 16-29: Otto III EnthronedOtto III, the last of the Ottonian rulers, shown flanked by clergy and the barons, in the Gospel Book of Otto III, tempera on vellum, cAs Holy Roman Emperor, he dreamed of a revived Christian Roman Empire.He died at 21 and was buried alongside Charlemagne.